Bibliography Tag: routes of exposure

Meuling et al., 2005

Meuling, W. J., Ravensberg, L. C., Roza, L., & van Hemmen, J. J.; “Dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos in human volunteers;” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2005, 78(1), 44-50; DOI: 10.1007/s00420-004-0558-6.


OBJECTIVE: The methods and results are described of a study on the dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in humans established via urinary excretion of the metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP).

METHODS: Two dermal, single, doses of CPF were applied in two study groups (A and B) each comprising three apparently healthy male volunteers who gave their written informed consent. The clinical part of the study was conducted in compliance with the ICH Guideline and the EC principles of good clinical practice (GCP). An approximately 0.5 ml dilution of CPF in ethanol was applied to an area of approximately 100 cm(2) of the volar aspect of the forearm, resulting in doses of either 5 mg (A) or 15 mg (B) of CPF per study subject. Duration of dermal exposure was 4 h, after which the non-absorbed fraction was washed off. The following samples were collected at pre-determined intervals for the determination of either CPF or its metabolite TCP: dosing solutions, wash-off fractions and urine samples collected up to 120 h after dosing.

RESULTS: A relatively large fraction of CPF (42%-67% of the applied dose) was washed off from the exposed skin area. Application of either 5 mg (A) or 15 mg CPF (B) resulted in the total urinary excretion of 131.8 microg (A) or 115.6 microg (B) of TCP 120 h after dosing. This indicated that 4.3% of the applied dose has been absorbed (A), while in group (B) no significant increase in urinary TCP (115.6 microg) was established. The latter indicates that an increase in the dermal dose at a fixed area does not increase absorption, which suggests that the percutaneous penetration rate was constant. Further, it was observed that the clearance of CPF by the body was not completed within 120 h, suggesting that CPF or TCP was retained by the skin and/or accumulated in the body. A mean elimination half-life of 41 h was established.

CONCLUSION: The results show that daily occupational exposure to CPF may result in accumulation of CPF and/or its metabolites, possibly resulting in adverse effects. FULL TEXT


O’Leary et al., 1970

O’Leary, James A., Davies, John E., Edmundson, Walter F., & Reich, George A.; “Transplacental passage of pesticides;” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1970, 107(1), 65-68; DOI: 10.1016/s0002-9378(16)33891-1.


The levels of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in blood and tissues of pregnant women have not been adequately studied, although it has been stated that DDT or its metabolites may be detected in most infants born in America today. The occurrence of these chemicals in neonates has been documented by Denes. For the most part, the biological effects of acute exposure to many pesticides are well known, although this is not true regarding chronic and subacute exposure. In addition, the chlorinated hydrocarbons have been shown to be powerful stimulators of the hepatic microsomal enzyme system:; and these effects remain to be determined. For this reason increased emphasis in this research area is advisable.

The application of gas chromatography and development of the electron capture detector have made possible the determination of levels of many pesticides in every tissue, thus opening new avenues of investigation. The data in this report are presented as an effort toward the clearer understanding of the possible effects of concentrations of pesticides in blood and other tissues during pregnancy, and represent conclusive evidence of the quantitative transfer of DDT and its metabolites to the fetus. The variables of maternal race and fetal maturity are considered. FULL TEXT

Macfarlane et al., 2013

Macfarlane, E., Carey, R., Keegel, T., El-Zaemay, S., & Fritschi, L.; “Dermal exposure associated with occupational end use of pesticides and the role of protective measures;” Safety and Health at Work, 2013, 4(3), 136-141; DOI: 10.1016/


BACKGROUND: Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest.

METHODS: This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.


Baldi et al., 2006

Baldi, I., Lebailly, P., Jean, S., Rougetet, L., Dulaurent, S., & Marquet, P.; “Pesticide contamination of workers in vineyards in France;” Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2006, 16(2), 115-124; DOI: 10.1038/sj.jea.7500443.


In order to build tools to quantify exposure to pesticides of farmers included into epidemiological studies, we performed a field study in Bordeaux vineyards during the 2001 and 2002 treatment seasons to identify parameters related to external contamination of workers. In total, 37 treatment days were observed in tractor operators corresponding to 65 mixing operations, 71 spraying operations and 26 equipment cleaning. In all, four operators with backpack sprayers and seven re-entry workers were also monitored. We performed both detailed observations of treatment characteristics on the whole day and pesticide measurements of external contamination (dermal and inhalation) for each operation. The median dermal contamination was 40.5 mg of active ingredient per day for tractor operators, 68.8 mg for backpack sprayers and 1.3 mg for vineyard workers. Most of the contamination was observed on the hands (49% and 56.2% for mixing and spraying, respectively). The median contribution of respiratory route in the total contamination was 1.1%. A cleaning operation resulted in a 4.20 mg dermal contamination intermediate between a mixing (2.85 mg) and a spraying operation (6.13 mg). Farm owners experienced higher levels than workers and lower contaminations were observed in larger farms. The contamination increased with the number of spraying phases and when equipment cleaning was performed. Types of equipment influenced significantly the daily contamination, whereas personal protective equipment only resulted in a limited decrease of contamination. FULL TEXT

Lebailly et al., 2009

Lebailly, P., Bouchart, V., Baldi, I., Lecluse, Y., Heutte, N., Gislard, A., & Malas, J. P.; “Exposure to pesticides in open-field farming in France;” Annals of Occupational Hygeine, 2009, 53(1), 69-81; DOI: 10.1093/annhyg/men072.


OBJECTIVES: Identification of parameters associated with measured pesticide exposure of farmers in open-field farming in France.

METHODS: Open-field volunteer farmers were monitored during 1 day use of the herbicide isoproturon on wheat and/or barley during the winters 2001 (n = 9) or 2002 (n = 38) under usual conditions of work. The whole-body method was used to assess potential dermal exposure using coveralls and cotton gloves. Mixing-loading and application tasks were assessed separately with 12 different body areas (hands, arms, forearms, legs, chest, back and thighs) measured for each task (mixing-loading and application separately).

RESULTS: Daily potential dermal exposure to isoproturon ranged from 2.0 to 567.8 mg (median = 57.8 mg) in 47 farmers. Exposure during mixing-loading tasks accounted for 13.9-98.1% of the total exposure (median = 74.8%). For mixing-loading, hands and forearms were the most contaminated body areas accounting for an average of 64 and 14%, respectively. For application, hands were also the most contaminated part of the body, accounting for an average of 57%, and thighs, forearms and chest or back were in the same range as one another, 3-10%. No correlations were observed between potential dermal exposure and area sprayed, duration of spraying or size of the farm. However, a significant relationship was observed between exposure and the type of spraying equipment, with a rear-mounted sprayer leading to a higher exposure level than trailer sprayers. Technical problems, particularly the unplugging of nozzles, and the numbers mixing-loading or application tasks performed were also significantly related with higher levels of exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: The main results obtained in this study on a large number of observation days are as follows: (i) the mixing-loading step was the most contaminated task in open field accounting for two-thirds of the total daily exposure, (ii) no positive correlation was noted with classically used pesticide-related parameters: farm area, area sprayed and duration of application and (iii) relevant parameters were the type of spraying equipment, the type and number of tasks and technical problems or cases of overflowing.  FULL TEXT

Perry et al., 2002

Perry, M. J., Marbella, A., & Layde, P. M.; “Compliance with required pesticide-specific protective equipment use;” American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2002, 41(1), 70-73; DOI: 10.1002/ajim.10026.


BACKGROUND: This study measured compliance with pesticide-specific protective gear use requirements practiced by farmers applying pesticides to field crops.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed 1 week after pesticide application to determine use of personal protective equipment while applying at least 1 of 15 possible restricted use pesticides (response rate = 82.4%).

RESULTS: Among the three most common pesticides used (dicamba, atrazine, and cyanazine), the proportions of farmers fully complying with gear use requirements were 8.8, 8.6, and 2.5%, respectively. For those same pesticides, the proportions (and 95% CI) using none of the required gear were 56.9% (47.3-66.5%), 38.6% (27.2-50.0%), and 47.5%(32.0-63.0%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Both full and partial compliance with required personal protective equipment was low for each of the 15 chemicals applied by the applicators in this sample.

Suppa et al., 2020

Suppa, A., Kvist, J., Li, X., Dhandapani, V., Almulla, H., Tian, A. Y., Kissane, S., Zhou, J., Perotti, A., Mangelson, H., Langford, K., Rossi, V., Brown, J. B., & Orsini, L.; “Roundup causes embryonic development failure and alters metabolic pathways and gut microbiota functionality in non-target species;” Microbiome, 2020, 8(1), 170; DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00943-5.


BACKGROUND: Research around the weedkiller Roundup is among the most contentious of the twenty-first century. Scientists have provided inconclusive evidence that the weedkiller causes cancer and other life-threatening diseases, while industry-paid research reports that the weedkiller has no adverse effect on humans or animals. Much of the controversial evidence on Roundup is rooted in the approach used to determine safe use of chemicals, defined by outdated toxicity tests. We apply a system biology approach to the biomedical and ecological model species Daphnia to quantify the impact of glyphosate and of its commercial formula, Roundup, on fitness, genome-wide transcription and gut microbiota, taking full advantage of clonal reproduction in Daphnia. We then apply machine learning-based statistical analysis to identify and prioritize correlations between genome-wide transcriptional and microbiota changes.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of glyphosate and Roundup at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water in the US induce embryonic developmental failure, induce significant DNA damage (genotoxicity), and interfere with signaling. Furthermore, chronic exposure to the weedkiller alters the gut microbiota functionality and composition interfering with carbon and fat metabolism, as well as homeostasis. Using the “Reactome,” we identify conserved pathways across the Tree of Life, which are potential targets for Roundup in other species, including liver metabolism, inflammation pathways, and collagen degradation, responsible for the repair of wounds and tissue remodeling.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that chronic exposure to concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water causes embryonic development failure and alteration of key metabolic functions via direct effect on the host molecular processes and indirect effect on the gut microbiota. The ecological model species Daphnia occupies a central position in the food web of aquatic ecosystems, being the preferred food of small vertebrates and invertebrates as well as a grazer of algae and bacteria. The impact of the weedkiller on this keystone species has cascading effects on aquatic food webs, affecting their ability to deliver critical ecosystem services. FULL TEXT

Rydz et al., 2020

Rydz, C. E., Larsen, K., & Peters, C. E.; “Estimating Exposure to Three Commonly Used, Potentially Carcinogenic Pesticides (Chlorolathonil, 2,4-D, and Glyphosate) Among Agricultural Workers in Canada;” Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/annweh/wxaa109.


OBJECTIVES: Certain pesticides have been associated with adverse health outcomes including cancer and reproductive harms. However, little is known about the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure among agricultural workers in Canada. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and likelihood of occupational exposure to pesticides in Canada’s agricultural industry, using three commonly used, potentially carcinogenic pesticides [chlorothalonil, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and glyphosate] as an example.

METHODS: Estimates were calculated using the Canadian Census of Population and the Census of Agriculture. The number of workers and the proportion of farms applying ‘herbicides’ or ‘fungicides’ by farm type was estimated using survey data from the Census of Agriculture. These values were multiplied to yield the potential number of workers at risk of exposure. Likelihood of exposure (i.e. exposed, probably exposed, and possibly exposed) was then qualitatively assigned using information on crop type, primary expected tasks, crop production practices, and residue transfer data. Additional agricultural workers who are at risk of exposure but not captured by the Census of Agriculture were identified using the 2016 Census of Population.

RESULTS: An estimated range of 37 700-55 800 workers (11-13% of agricultural workers) were exposed to glyphosate in Canada while 30 800-43 600 workers (9-11%) and 9000-14 100 (2.9-3.2%) were exposed to 2,4-D and chlorothalonil, respectively. Approximately 70-75% of workers at risk of exposure were considered probably or possibly exposed to any of the pesticides. Glyphosate exposure was most common among workers in oilseed (29% of oilseed farm workers exposed) and dry pea/bean farms (28%), along with those providing support activities for farms (31%). 2,4-D exposure was most common in corn (28%), other grain (28%), and soybean farms (27%), while chlorothalonil exposure was more likely among greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture workers (42%), workers on farms (28%, for occupations not captured by the Census of Agriculture, specifically), and those providing support activities for farms (20%). Regional variations broadly reflected differences in farm types by province.

CONCLUSIONS: This study estimated the prevalence of occupational exposure to three pesticides in Canada. Seasonal and temporary agricultural workers, which were captured by the Census of Agriculture, contributed to many additionally exposed workers. A large percent of the workers who were considered at risk of exposure were considered probably or possibly exposed, indicating a need for enhanced data collection and availability on pesticide use data in Canada. The study’s methods can be applied to estimate workers’ exposures to other pesticides within the agricultural industry.

Benbrook and Davis, 2020

Benbrook, Charles M., & Davis, Donald R.; “The dietary risk index system: a tool to track pesticide dietary risks;” Environmental Health, 2020, 19(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12940-020-00657-z.


BACKGROUND: For years the United States Department of Agriculture’s Pesticide Data Program and the United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency have published annual or quarterly data on pesticide residues in foods. Both programs report residues in conventionally grown, organic, and imported foods. The US program has tested about 288,000 food samples since 1992, primarily fruits and vegetables consumed by children. Since 1999 the UK has tested about 72,000 samples of a wider range of foods. These data are vital inputs in tracking trends in pesticide dietary risks.

METHODS: The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system facilitates detailed analyses of US and UK pesticide residue data, trends, and chronic risk distributions. The DRI value for a pesticide is the dietary intake of that pesticide from a single serving of food divided by the pesticide’s acceptable daily intake as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can be calculated based on average annual residue concentrations, and on residue levels in individual samples of food. DRI values can be aggregated over multiple pesticides in single foods, and over individual pesticides in multiple foods.

RESULTS: The DRI system provides insights into the levels, trends, and distribution of pesticide dietary risk across most widely consumed foods. By drawing on both US Pesticide Data Program and UK-Food Standards Agency residue data, the DRI is capable of assessing pesticide risks in a significant portion of the global food supply. Substantial reductions in pesticide dietary risks occurred in the early 2000s, primarily from replacement of organophosphate insecticides with seemingly lower-risk neonicotinoids. However, there remain several areas of concern and opportunities to reduce risks. Both herbicide and fungicide dietary risks are rising. Organically grown produce poses risks far lower than corresponding, conventionally grown produce. Risk differences are inconsistent between domestic and imported foods.

CONCLUSTIONS: The surest ways to markedly reduce pesticide dietary risks are to shift relatively high-risk fruits and vegetables to organic production. For other foods, reducing reliance on pesticides overall, and especially high-risk pesticides, will incrementally lower risks. The DRI system can help focus such efforts and track progress in reducing pesticide dietary risk. FULL TEXT

Berens et al., 2020

Berens, Matthew B., Capel, Paul D., & Arnold, William A.; “Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Surface Water, Groundwater, and Wastewater across Land Use Gradients and Potential Effects;” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2020, In Press; DOI: 10.1002/etc.4959.


Neonicotinoid insecticides cause adverse effects on non-target organisms, but more information about their occurrence in surface and groundwater is needed across a range of land use. Sixty-five sites in Minnesota U.S., representing rivers, streams, lakes, groundwater, and treated wastewater, were monitored via collection of 157 water samples to determine variability in spatiotemporal neonicotinoid concentrations. The data were used to assess relations to land use, hydrogeologic condition, and potential effects on aquatic life. Results showed total neonicotinoid concentrations were highest in agricultural watersheds (median=12 ng/L) followed by urban (2.9 ng/L) and undeveloped watersheds (1.9 ng/L). Clothianidin was most frequently detected in agricultural areas (detection frequency = 100%) and imidacloprid most often in urban waters (detection frequency = 97%). The seasonal trend of neonicotinoid concentrations in rivers, streams, and lakes showed that their highest concentrations coincided with spring planting and elevated streamflow. Consistently low neonicotinoid concentrations were found in shallow groundwater in agricultural regions (<1.2-16 ng/L, median = 1.4 ng/L). Treated municipal wastewater had the highest concentrations across all hydrologic compartments (12-48 ng/L, median = 19 ng/L), but neonicotinoid loads from rivers and streams (median = 4100 mg/d) were greater than in treated wastewater (700 mg/d). No samples exceeded acute aquatic-life benchmarks for individual neonicotinoids, whereas 10% of samples exceeded a chronic benchmark for neonicotinoid mixtures. Although 62% of samples contained two or more neonicotinoids, the observed concentrations suggest there were low acute and potential chronic risks to aquatic life. This the first study of its size in Minnesota and is critical to better understanding the drivers of widescale environmental contamination by neonicotinoids where urban, agricultural, and undeveloped lands are present. FULL TEXT