Nolan, R. J., Rick, D. L., Freshour, N. L., & Saunders, J. H.; “Chlorpyrifos: Pharmacokinetics in human volunteers;” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1984, 73(1), 8-15; DOI: 10.1016/0041-008x(84)90046-2.
The kinetics of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorothioate insecticide, and its principal metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (3,5,6-TCP), were investigated in six healthy male volunteers given a single 0.5 mg/kg po and, 2 or more weeks later, a 0.5 or 5.0 mg/kg dermal dose of chlorpyrifos. No signs or symptoms of toxicity or changes in erythrocyte cholinesterase were observed. Plasma cholinesterase was depressed to 15% of predose levels by the 0.5 mg/kg po dose but was essentially unchanged following the 5.0 mg/kg dermal dose. Blood chlorpyrifos concentrations were extremely low (less than 30 ng/ml), and no unchanged chlorpyrifos was found in the urine following either route of administration. Mean blood 3,5,6-TCP concentrations peaked at 0.93 micrograms/ml 6 hr after ingestion of the oral dose and at 0.063 micrograms/ml 24 hr after the 5.0 mg/kg dermal dose. 3,5,6-TCP was cleared from the blood and eliminated in the urine with a half-life of 27 hr following both the po and dermal doses. An average of 70% of the po dose but less than 3% of the dermal dose was excreted in the urine as 3,5,6-TCP; thus only a small fraction of the dermally applied chlorpyrifos was absorbed. Chlorpyrifos and its principal metabolite were rapidly eliminated and therefore have a low potential to accumulate in man on repeated exposures. Based on these data, blood and/or urinary 3,5,6-TCP concentrations could be used to quantify the amount of chlorpyrifos absorbed under actual use conditions.