Dean et al., 1995
Dean, E. Riechers, Loyd, M. Wax, Rex, A. Liebl, & Don, G. Bullock; “Surfactant Effects on Glyphosate Efficacy;” Weed Technology, 1995, 9(2), 281-285.
Field and greenhouse studies were performed to examine the influence of various surfactants with glyphosate on whole plant efficacy. Relationships were examined between glyphosate phytotoxicity and surfactant properties, including ionic form, degree of ethoxylation, and hydrophobe composition. Cationic tertiary amine surfactants enhanced glyphosate performance in both field and greenhouse studies. Nonionic allinol and octoxynol surfactants were not effective in combination with glyphosate. In field studies, glyphosate efficacy increased with increasing surfactant ethylene oxide (EO) content. Soybean and velvetleaf responded similarly to glyphosate-surfactant spray applications, as both demonstrated significant linear and quadratic relationships between increasing surfactant ethoxylation and phytotoxicity, while common lambsquarters showed a significant linear relationship only. Cationic surfactants were evaluated in the greenhouse and a significant quadratic regression of glyphosate phytotoxicity to common lambsquarters on increasing surfactant ethoxylation indicated an optimum surfactant EO content of about 10 moles. Both tertiary and quaternary ethoxylated fatty amines were effective with glyphosate in decreasing common lambsquarters’ fresh weight. Fatty amine hydrophobe composition did not correlate with glyphosate phytotoxicity to common lambsquarters. FULL TEXT