Arnold et al., 2015
Arnold, S. M., Morriss, A., Velovitch, J., Juberg, D., Burns, C. J., Bartels, M., Aggarwal, M., Poet, T., Hays, S., & Price, P.; “Derivation of human Biomonitoring Guidance Values for chlorpyrifos using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model of cholinesterase inhibition;” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2015, 71(2), 235-243; DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2014.12.013.
A number of biomonitoring surveys have been performed for chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, TCPy); however, there is no available guidance on how to interpret these data in a health risk assessment context. To address this gap, Biomonitoring Guidance Values (BGVs) are developed using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model. The PBPK/PD model is used to predict the impact of age and human variability on the relationship between an early marker of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in the peripheral and central nervous systems [10% red blood cell (RBC) ChE inhibition] and levels of systemic biomarkers. Since the PBPK/PD model characterizes variation of sensitivity to CPF in humans, interspecies and intraspecies uncertainty factors are not needed. Derived BGVs represent the concentration of blood CPF and urinary TCPy associated with 95% of the population having less than or equal to 10% RBC ChE inhibition. Blood BGV values for CPF in adults and infants are 6100 ng/L and 4200 ng/L, respectively. Urinary TCPy BGVs for adults and infants are 2100 mug/L and 520 mug/L, respectively. The reported biomonitoring data are more than 150-fold lower than the BGVs suggesting that current US population exposures to CPF are well below levels associated with any adverse health effect. FULL TEXT