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Bibliography Tag: dicamba and birth defects

Mostafalou and Abdollahi, 2017

Sara Mostafalou and Mohammad Abdollahi, “Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity,” Archives of Toxicology, February 2017, 91:2, DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1849-x.


Pesticides are a family of compounds which have brought many benefits to mankind in the agricultural, industrial, and health areas, but their toxicities in both humans and animals have always been a concern. Regardless of acute poisonings which are common for some classes of pesticides like organophosphoruses, the association of chronic and sub-lethal exposure to pesticides with a prevalence of some persistent diseases is going to be a phenomenon to which global attention has been attracted. In this review, incidence of various malignant, neurodegenerative, respiratory, reproductive, developmental, and metabolic diseases in relation to different routes of human exposure to pesticides such as occupational, environmental, residential, parental, maternal, and paternal has been systematically criticized in different categories of pesticide toxicities like carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, pulmonotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, and metabolic toxicity. A huge body of evidence exists on the possible role of pesticide exposures in the elevated incidence of human diseases such as cancers, Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, bronchitis, infertility, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, diabetes, and obesity. Most of the disorders are induced by insecticides and herbicides most notably organophosphorus, organochlorines, phenoxyacetic acids, and triazine compounds.

Weselak et al., 2008

Weselak M, Arbuckle TE, Wigle DT, Walker MC, Krewski D, “Pre- and post-conception pesticide exposure and the risk of birth defects in an Ontario farm population.,” Reproductive Toxicology, 2008, 25:4, DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.05.060.

ABSTRACT: The use of pesticides has enhanced the health and economies of nations around the world by improving crop production. However, pesticides may pose health risks, particularly to the fetus and young children. In a secondary analysis of the Ontario Farm Family Health Study, we explored the relationship between birth defects and parental pesticide exposure during the 3 months prior to conception and the first trimester of pregnancy. A total of 3412 pregnancies were included in the study. Logistic regression fit by maximum likelihood was used in the analysis. The results showed that pre-conception exposure to both cyanazine (odds ratio=4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-15.27) and dicamba (OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.06-5.53) were associated with increased risk of birth defects in male offspring. Nevertheless, given the self-reported nature of the exposure and outcomes in this study, the present findings should be considered primarily as hypothesis generating, requiring verification in subsequent investigations. FULL TEXT

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