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Bibliography Tag: epidemiological studies

Rocheleau et al., 2015

Rocheleau CM, Bertke SJ, Lawson CC, Romitti PA, Sanderson WT, Malik S, Lupo PJ, Desrosiers TA, Bell E, Druschel C, Correa A, Reefhuis J, “Maternal occupational pesticide exposure and risk of congenital heart defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study,” Birth Defects Research Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratololgy, 2015, 103:10, DOI: 10.1002/bdra.23351.


BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent.

METHODS: We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.7-15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0, 13 exposed cases).

CONCLUSION: Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations.   FULL TEXT

Garry et al., 1996

Garry VF, Schreinemachers D, Harkins ME, Griffith J, “Pesticide appliers, biocides, and birth defects in rural Minnesota,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 1996, 104:4.


Earlier studies by our group suggested the possibility that offspring of pesticide appliers might have increased risks of birth anomalies. To evaluate this hypothesis, 935 births to 34,772 state-licensed, private pesticide appliers in Minnesota occurring between 1989 and 1992 were linked to the Minnesota state birth registry containing 210,723 live births in this timeframe. The birth defect rate for all birth anomalies was significantly increased in children born to private appliers. Specific birth defect categories, circulatory/respiratory, urogenital, and musculoskeletal/integumental, showed significant increases. For the general population and for appliers, the birth anomaly rate differed by corp-growing region. Western Minnesota, a major wheat, sugar beet, and potato growing region, showed the highest rate of birth anomalies per/1000 live births: 30.0 for private appliers versus 26.9 for the general population of the same region. The lowest rates, 23.7/1000 for private appliers versus 18.3/1000 for the general population, occurred in noncorp regions. The highest frequency of use of chlorophenoxy herbicides and fungicides also occurred in western Minnesota. Births in the general population of western Minnesota showed a significant increase in birth anomalies in the same three birth anomaly categories as appliers and for central nervous system anomalies. This increase was most pronounced for infants conceived in the spring. The seasonal effect did not occur in other regions. The male/female sex ratio for the four birth anomaly categories of interest in areas of high phenoxy herbicide/fungicide use is 2.8 for appliers versus 1.5 for the general population of the same region (p = 0.05). In minimal use regions, this ratio is 2.1 for appliers versus 1.7 for the general population. The pattern of excess frequency of birth anomalies by pesticide use, season, and alteration of sex ratio suggests exposure-related effects in appliers and the general population of the crop-growing region of western Minnesota.  FULL TEXT

Arbuckle et al., 1999

Arbuckle TE, Savitz DA, Mery LS, Curtis KM, “Exposure to phenoxy herbicides and the risk of spontaneous abortion,” Epidemiology, 1999, 10:6.


The Ontario Farm Family Health Study was designed to assess retrospectively the potential adverse effects of exposure to pesticides on pregnancy. Information on the health and life style of approximately 2,000 farm couples, as well as a history of use of pesticides on the farm, was collected by questionnaire. This analysis focuses on pre- and postconception exposure to phenoxy herbicides and the risk of spontaneous abortion using the complete (to date) pregnancy history for each woman. Preconception exposure (from 3 months before conception to the month of conception) was weakly associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion at <20 weeks’ gestation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.9]. When the analyses were restricted to spontaneous abortions of <12 weeks, the risk was more than doubled (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0-6.4), but the results were sensitive to the cutpoint used. If the husband did not normally wear protective equipment during application, the crude OR for early spontaneous abortions was 5.0 (95% CI = 0.7-36.2). Exposure to phenoxy herbicides during the first trimester was generally not associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The results suggest a possible role of preconception (possibly paternal) exposures to phenoxy herbicides in the risk of early spontaneous abortions.

Arbuckle et al., 2001

Arbuckle TE, Lin Z, Mery LS., “An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2001, 109: 8.


The toxicity of pesticides on human reproduction is largely unknown–particularly how mixtures of pesticide products might affect fetal toxicity. The Ontario Farm Family Health Study collected data by questionnaire on the identity and timing of pesticide use on the farm, lifestyle factors, and a complete reproductive history from the farm operator and eligible couples living on the farm. A total of 2,110 women provided information on 3,936 pregnancies, including 395 spontaneous abortions. To explore critical windows of exposure and target sites for toxicity, we examined exposures separately for preconception (3 months before and up to month of conception) and postconception (first trimester) windows and for early (< 12 weeks) and late (12-19 weeks) spontaneous abortions. We observed moderate increases in risk of early abortions for preconception exposures to phenoxy acetic acid herbicides [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.1], triazines (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0), and any herbicide (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). For late abortions, preconception exposure to glyphosate (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), thiocarbamates (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0), and the miscellaneous class of pesticides (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4) was associated with elevated risks. Postconception exposures were generally associated with late spontaneous abortions. Older maternal age (> 34 years of age) was the strongest risk factor for spontaneous abortions, and we observed several interactions between pesticides in the older age group using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. This study shows that timing of exposure and restricting analyses to more homogeneous endpoints are important in characterizing the reproductive toxicity of pesticides.  FULL TEXT

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