Bibliography Tag: glufosinate

Franke et al., 2020

Franke, A. A., Li, X., & Lai, J. F.; “Analysis of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate from human urine by HRAM LC-MS;” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s00216-020-02966-1.


Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the main metabolite of glyphosate (GLYP) and phosphonic acids in detergents. GLYP is a synthetic herbicide frequently used worldwide alone or together with its analog glufosinate (GLUF). The general public can be exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals; thus, sensitive methods to monitor them in humans are urgently required to evaluate health risks. We attempted to simultaneously detect GLYP, AMPA, and GLUF in human urine by high-resolution accurate-mass liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) before and after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) or 1-methylimidazole-sulfonyl chloride (ImS-Cl) with several urine pre-treatment and solid phase extraction (SPE) steps. Fmoc-Cl derivatization achieved the best combination of method sensitivity (limit of detection; LOD) and accuracy for all compounds compared to underivatized urine or ImS-Cl-derivatized urine. Before derivatization, the best steps for GLYP involved 0.4 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) pre-treatment followed by SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 37 pg/mL), for AMPA involved no EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 20 pg/mL) or 0.2-0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment with no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 19-21 pg/mL), and for GLUF involved 0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 7 pg/mL). However, for these methods, accuracy was sufficient only for AMPA (101-105%), while being modest for GLYP (61%) and GLUF (63%). Different EDTA and SPE treatments prior to Fmoc-Cl derivatization resulted in high sensitivity for all analytes but satisfactory accuracy only for AMPA. Thus, we conclude that our HRAM LC-MS method is suited for urinary AMPA analysis in cross-sectional studies. FULL TEXT

Gage et al., 2019

Gage, Karla L., Krausz, Ronald F., & Walters, S. Alan; “Emerging Challenges for Weed Management in Herbicide-Resistant Crops;” Agriculture, 2019, 9(8); DOI: 10.3390/agriculture9080180.


Since weed management is such a critical component of agronomic crop production systems, herbicides are widely used to provide weed control to ensure that yields are maximized. In the last few years, herbicide-resistant (HR) crops, particularly those that are glyphosate-resistant, and more recently, those with dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) resistance are changing the way many growers manage weeds. However, past reliance on glyphosate and mistakes made in stewardship of the glyphosate-resistant cropping systemhave directly led to the current weed resistance problems that now occur in many agronomic cropping systems, and new technologies must be well-stewarded. New herbicide-resistant trait technologies in soybean, such as dicamba-, 2,4-D-, and isoxaflutole- ((5-cyclopropyl-4-isoxazolyl)[2-(methylsulfonyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methanone) resistance, are being combined with glyphosate- and glufosinate-resistance traits to manage herbicide-resistant weed populations. In cropping systems with glyphosate-resistant weed species, these new trait options may provide effective weed management tools, although there may be increased risk of off-target movement and susceptible plant damage with the use of some of these technologies. The use of diverse weed management practices to reduce the selection pressure for herbicide-resistant weed evolution is essential to preserve the utility of new traits. The use of herbicides with differing sites of action (SOAs), ideally in combination as mixtures, but also in rotation as part of a weed management program may slow the evolution of resistance in some cases. Increased selection pressure from the effects of some herbicide mixtures may lead to more cases of metabolic herbicide resistance. The most effective long-term approach for weed resistance management is the use of Integrated Weed Management (IWM) which may build the ecological complexity of the cropping system. Given the challenges in management of herbicide-resistant weeds, IWM will likely play a critical role in enhancing future food security for a growing global population. FULL TEXT

Kleter et al., 2011

Kleter, Gijs A, Unsworth, B, & Harris, Caroline A; “The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues;” Pest Management Science, 2011, 67, 1193-1210; DOI: 10.1002/ps.2128.


The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s.Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide residues within these crops. In this article, the four main categories of herbicide resistance, including resistance to acetolactate-synthase inhibitors, bromoxynil, glufosinate and glyphosate, are reviewed. The topics considered are the molecular mechanism underlying the herbicide resistance, the nature and levels of the residues formed and their impact on the residue definition and maximum residue limits (MRLs) defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and national authorities. No general conclusions can be drawn concerning the nature and level of residues, which has to be done on a case-by-case basis. International residue definitions and MRLs are still lacking for some herbicide–crop combinations, and harmonisation is therefore recommended. FULL TEXT

Zhang et al., 2017a

Zhang, Ti, Johnson, Eric N., & Willenborg, Christian J.; “Evaluation of Harvest-Aid Herbicides as Desiccants in Lentil Production;” Weed Technology, 2017, 30(3), 629-638; DOI: 10.1614/wt-d-16-00007.1.


Desiccants are currently used to improve lentil dry-down prior to harvest. Applying desiccants at growth stages prior to maturity may result in reduced crop yield and quality, and leave unacceptable herbicide residues in seeds. There is little information on whether various herbicides applied alone or as a tank-mix with glyphosate have an effect on glyphosate residues in harvested seed. Field trials were conducted at Saskatoon and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2012 to 2014 to determine whether additional desiccants applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate improve crop desiccation and reduce the potential for unacceptable glyphosate residue in seed. Glufosinate and diquat tank mixed with glyphosate were the most consistent desiccants, providing optimal crop dry-down and a general reduction in glyphosate seed residues without adverse effects on seed yield and weight. Saflufenacil provided good crop desiccation without yield loss, but failed to reduce glyphosate seed residues consistently. Pyraflufen-ethyl and flumioxazin applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate were found to be inferior options for growers as they exhibited slow and incomplete crop desiccation, and did not decrease glyphosate seed residues. Based on results from this study, growers should apply glufosinate or diquat with preharvest glyphosate to maximize crop and weed desiccation, and minimize glyphosate seed residues. FULL TEXT

Aris and Leblanc, 2011

Aris, Aziz, & Leblanc, Samuel; “Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.;” Reproductive Toxicology, 2011, 31, 528-533; DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.004.


Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities. FULL TEXT

Green, 2018

Green, J. M., “The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops,” Pest Management Science, 2018, 74(5), 1035-1039. DOI: 10.1002/ps.4462.


Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits. Unfortunately, companies have not discovered a new commercial herbicide mode-of-action for over 30 years and have already developed or are developing traits for all existing herbicide types with high utility. Glyphosate mixtures and glyphosate trait combinations will be the mainstays of weed management for many growers, but are not going to be enough to keep up with the capacity of weeds to evolve resistance. Glufosinate, auxin, HPPD-inhibiting and other herbicide traits, even when combined with glyphosate resistance, are incremental and temporary solutions. Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer. The long time without the discovery of a new herbicide mode-of-action and the epidemic of resistant weeds is forcing many growers to spend much more to manage weeds and creating a worst of times, best of times predicament for the crop protection and seed industry. (c) 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.  FULL TEXT

Feat-Vetel et al., 2018

Feat-Vetel, Justyne, Larrigaldie, Vanessa, Meyer-Dilhet, Geraldine, Herzine, Ameziane, Mougin, Camille, Laugeray, Anthony, Gefflaut, Thierry, Richard, Olivier, Quesniaux, Valerie, Montecot-Dubourg, Celine, & Mortaud, Stephane, “Multiple effects of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium and its main metabolite on neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of newborn mice,” NeuroToxicology, 2018, 69, 152-163. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2018.10.001.


The globally used herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) is structurally analogous to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and is known to interfere with cellular mechanisms involved in the glutamatergic system. In this report, we used an in vitro model of murine primary neural stem cell culture to investigate the neurotoxicity of GLA and its main metabolite, 4-methylphosphinico-2-oxobutanoic acid (PPO). We demonstrated that GLA and PPO disturb ependymal wall integrity in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and alter the neuro-glial differentiation of neural stem cells. GLA and PPO impaired the formation of cilia, with reduced Celsr2 expression after PPO exposure. GLA promoted the differentiation of neuronal and oligodendroglial cells while PPO increased B1 cell population and impaired neuronal fate of neural stem cells. These results confirm our previous in vivo report that developmental exposure to GLA alters neurogenesis in the SVZ, and neuroblast migration along the rostral migratory stream. They also highlight the importance of investigating the toxicity of pesticide degradation products. Indeed, not only GLA, but also its metabolite PPO disrupts V-SVZ homeostasis and provides a novel cellular mechanism underlying GLA-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate a neurotoxic activity of a metabolite of GLA different from that of GLA active substance for the very first time. FULL TEXT

Laugeray et al., 2014

Anthony Laugeray, Ameziane Herzine, Olivier Perche,1,2 Betty Hébert, Marine Aguillon-Naury, Olivier Richard, Arnaud Menuet, Séverine Mazaud-Guittot, Laurianne Lesné, Sylvain Briault, Bernard Jegou, Jacques Pichon, Céline Montécot-Dubourg, and Stéphane Mortaud, “Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Low Dose Glufosinate Ammonium Induces Autism-Like Phenotypes in Mice,” Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2014, 8:390, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00390


Glufosinate ammonium (GLA) is one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. As is the case for most pesticides, potential adverse effects of GLA have not been studied from the perspective of developmental neurotoxicity. Early pesticides exposure may weaken the basic structure of the developing brain and cause permanent changes leading to a wide range of lifelong effects on health and/or behavior. Here, we addressed the developmental impact of GLA by exposing female mice to low dose GLA during both pre- and postnatal periods and analyzed potential developmental and behavioral changes of the offspring during infancy and adulthood. A neurobehavioral test battery revealed significant effects of GLA maternal exposure on early reflex development, pup communication, affiliative behaviors, and preference for social olfactory cues, but emotional reactivity and emotional memory remained unaltered. These behavioral alterations showed a striking resemblance to changes seen in animal models of Autistic Spectrum Disorders. At the brain level, GLA maternal exposure caused some increase in relative brain weight of the offspring. In addition, reduced expression of Pten and Peg3 – two genes implicated in autism-like deficits – was observed in the brain of GLA-exposed pups at postnatal day 15. Our work thus provides new data on the link between pre- and postnatal exposure to the herbicide GLA and the onset of autism-like symptoms later in life. It also raises fundamental concerns about the ability of current safety testing to assess risks of pesticide exposure during critical developmental periods.  FULL TEXT

Tsao et al., 2016

Yun-Chen Tsao, Yung-Chun Lai, Hsiu-Chuan Liu, Ray H. Liu, and Dong-Liang Lin, “Simultaneous Determination and Quantitation of Paraquat, Diquat, Glufosinate and Glyphosate,in Postmortem Blood and Urine by LC–MS-MS,” Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 40, 2016, DOI: 10.1093/jat/bkw042


A simple method, incorporating protein-precipitation/organic backwashing and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS), has been successfully developed for the simultaneous analysis of four highly water-soluble and less volatile herbicides (paraquat, diquat, glufosinate and glyphosate) in ante- and postmortem blood, urine and gastric content samples. Respective isotopically labeled analogs of these analytes were adopted as internal standards.  Acetonitrile and dichloromethane were used for protein precipitation and organic solvent backwashing, respectively, followed by injecting the upper aqueous phase into the LC–MS-MS system. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq analytical column, with gradient elution of 15 mM heptafluorobutyric acid and acetonitrile. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed under electrospray ionization in positive-ion multiple reaction
monitoring mode. The precursor ions and the two transition ions (m/z) adopted for each of these four analytes were paraquat (185; 169 and 115), diquat (183; 157 and 78), glufosinate (182; 136 and 119) and glyphosate (170; 88 and 60), respectively. Analyte-free blood and urine samples, fortified with the analytes of  interest, were used for method development/validation and yielded acceptable recoveries of the analytes; interday and intraday precision and accuracy data; calibration linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. This method was successfully incorporated into an overall analytical scheme, designed for the analysis of a broad range of compounds present in postmortem samples, helpful to medical examiners’ efforts to determine victims’ causes of death. FULL TEXT