Bibliography Tag: imidacloprid

Ndonwi et al., 2019

Ndonwi EN, Atogho-Tiedeu B, Lontchi-Yimagou E, Shinkafi TS, Nanfa D, Balti EV, Indusmita R, Mahmood A, Katte JC, Mbanya A, Matsha T, Mbanya JC, Shakir A, Sobngwi E. “Gestational Exposure to Pesticides Induces Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Offspring that Persist at Adult Age in an Animal Model.” Toxicological Research, 2019 Jul;35(3):241-248; DOI: 10.5487/TR.2019.35.3.241.

ABSTRACT:

Pesticide exposure may induce biochemical alterations including oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, in the context of developmental origin of health and disease, putative trans-generational effect of exposure to pesticides are insufficiently studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate the biochemical effect of gestational exposure to four pesticides on female Wistar rats and their offspring at adult age. We studied 30 female nulliparous Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group and received distilled water while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received orally pesticide 1 (imidacloprid), pesticide 2 (chlorpyrifos), pesticide 3 (imidacloprid + lambda cyhalothrin) and pesticide 4 (oxamyl) respectively once daily throughout gestation at a dose equivalent to 1/10 lethal dose 50. The mothers were followed up until one month post gestation. The offspring were followed up from birth until adult age (12 weeks). In all animals at each time point we evaluated malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress and liver function enzymes. There was similar variation of total body weight in all the groups during and after gestation. However, Female Wistar rats of the exposed groups had significant alterations in liver SOD (-30.8% to +64.1%), catalase (-38.8% to -85.7%) and GSH (-29.2% to -86.5%) and; kidney catalase (> 100%), GSH (> 100%). Moreover, MDA, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were significantly higher in pesticide exposed rats compared to the control group. Similar alterations in antioxidant enzymes, MDA and liver function enzymes were observed in offspring of treated rats evidenced at weaning and persisting until adult age. Exposure to pesticides causes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in exposed female Wistar rats and their offspring. The persistence in offspring at adult age suggests transgenerational adverse effects. FULL TEXT


Mesnage et al., 2021B

Mesnage, R., Teixeira, M., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ibragim, M., Ducarmon, Q. R., Zwittink, R. D., Amiel, C., Panoff, J. M., Bourne, E., Savage, E., Mein, C. A., Belpoggi, F., & Antoniou, M. N.; “Multi-omics phenotyping of the gut-liver axis reveals metabolic perturbations from a low-dose pesticide mixture in rats;” Communications Biology, 2021, 4(1), 471; DOI: 10.1038/s42003-021-01990-w.

ABSTRACT:

Health effects of pesticides are not always accurately detected using the current battery of regulatory toxicity tests. We compared standard histopathology and serum biochemistry measures and multi-omics analyses in a subchronic toxicity test of a mixture of six pesticides frequently detected in foodstuffs (azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorpyrifos, glyphosate, imidacloprid and thiabendazole) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Analysis of water and feed consumption, body weight, histopathology and serum biochemistry showed little effect. Contrastingly, serum and caecum metabolomics revealed that nicotinamide and tryptophan metabolism were affected, which suggested activation of an oxidative stress response. This was not reflected by gut microbial community composition changes evaluated by shotgun metagenomics. Transcriptomics of the liver showed that 257 genes had their expression changed. Gene functions affected included the regulation of response to steroid hormones and the activation of stress response pathways. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of the same liver samples showed that 4,255 CpG sites were differentially methylated. Overall, we demonstrated that in-depth molecular profiling in laboratory animals exposed to low concentrations of pesticides allows the detection of metabolic perturbations that would remain undetected by standard regulatory biochemical measures and which could thus improve the predictability of health risks from exposure to chemical pollutants. FULL TEXT


Abdel-Halim and Osman, 2020

Abdel-Halim, K. Y., & Osman, S. R.; “Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Responses of Imidacloprid and Glyphosate in Human Prostate Epithelial WPM-Y.1 Cell Line;” Journal of Toxicology, 2020, 2020, 4364650; DOI: 10.1155/2020/4364650.

ABSTRACT:

Insecticide imidacloprid and herbicide glyphosate have a broad spectrum of applicable use in the agricultural sector of Egypt. Their ability to induce in vitro cytotoxic and oxidative stress on normal human cells (prostate epithelial WPM-Y.1 cell line) was evaluated with the methyl tetrazolium test (MTT) and histopathological investigation. Cell viability was evaluated with an MTT test for 24 h. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values were 0.023 and 0.025 mM for imidacloprid and glyphosate, respectively. Sublethal concentrations: 1/10 and 1/50 of IC50 and IC50 levels significantly induced an increase in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level compared with the untreated cells. Rapid decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was induced. Significant increases were recorded in activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR), respectively, compared with the control group. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) investigation showed significant defects in the cells following pesticide treatments for 24 h. Therefore, it is concluded that imidacloprid and glyphosate are very toxic in vitro assays and able to induce apoptotic effects as well as oxidative stress. So, these findings provide a scenario of multibiomarkers to achieve the imposed risks of pesticides at low doses. FULL TEXT