Bibliography Tag: meta analysis

Milesi et al., 2021

Milesi, M. M., Lorenz, V., Durando, M., Rossetti, M. F., & Varayoud, J. “Glyphosate Herbicide: Reproductive Outcomes and Multigenerational Effects.” Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. 2021; DOI:10.3389/fendo.2021.672532.

ABSTRACT:

Glyphosate base herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely applied pesticides in the world and are mainly used in association with GBH-tolerant crop varieties. Indiscriminate and negligent use of GBHs has promoted the emergence of glyphosate resistant weeds, and consequently the rise in the use of these herbicides. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of all GBHs, is combined with other chemicals known as co-formulants that enhance the herbicide action. Nowadays, the safety of glyphosate and its formulations remain to be a controversial issue, as evidence is not conclusive whether the adverse effects are caused by GBH or glyphosate, and little is known about the contribution of co-formulants to the toxicity of herbicides. Currently, alarmingly increased levels of glyphosate have been detected in different environmental matrixes and in foodstuff, becoming an issue of social concern. Some in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glyphosate and its formulations exhibit estrogen-like properties, and growing evidence has indicated they may disrupt normal endocrine function, with adverse consequences for reproductive health. Moreover, multigenerational effects have been reported and epigenetic mechanisms have been proved to be involved in the alterations induced by the herbicide. In this review, we provide an overview of: i) the routes and levels of human exposure to GBHs, ii) the potential estrogenic effects of glyphosate and GBHs in cell culture and animal models, iii) their long-term effects on female fertility and mechanisms of action, and iv) the consequences on health of successive generations. FULL TEXT


Syafrudin et al., 2021

Syafrudin M, Kristanti RA, Yuniarto A, Hadibarata T, Rhee J, Al-Onazi WA, Algarni TS, Almarri AH, Al-Mohaimeed AM. Pesticides in Drinking Water-A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021 Jan 8;18(2):468. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18020468.

ABSTRACT:

The ubiquitous problem of pesticide in aquatic environment are receiving worldwide concern as pesticide tends to accumulate in the body of the aquatic organism and sediment soil, posing health risks to the human. Many pesticide formulations had introduced due to the rapid growth in the global pesticide market result from the wide use of pesticides in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. The occurrence of pesticides in the water body is derived by the runoff from the agricultural field and industrial wastewater. Soluble pesticides were carried away by water molecules especially during the precipitation event by percolating downward into the soil layers and eventually reach surface waters and groundwater. Consequently, it degrades water quality and reduces the supply of clean water for potable water. Long-time exposure to the low concentration of pesticides had resulted in non-carcinogenic health risks. The conventional method of pesticide treatment processes encompasses coagulation-flocculation, adsorption, filtration and sedimentation, which rely on the phase transfer of pollutants. Those methods are often incurred with a relatively high operational cost and may cause secondary pollution such as sludge formation. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are recognized as clean technologies for the treatment of water containing recalcitrant and bio-refractory pollutants such as pesticides. It has been adopted as recent water purification technology because of the thermodynamic viability and broad spectrum of applicability. This work provides a comprehensive review for occurrence of pesticide in the drinking water and its possible treatment. FULL TEXT


Macfarlane et al., 2013

Macfarlane, E., Carey, R., Keegel, T., El-Zaemay, S., & Fritschi, L.; “Dermal exposure associated with occupational end use of pesticides and the role of protective measures;” Safety and Health at Work, 2013, 4(3), 136-141; DOI: 10.1016/j.shaw.2013.07.004.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest.

METHODS: This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.

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Pisa et al., 2015

Pisa, L. W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L. P., Bonmatin, J. M., Downs, C. A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D. P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C. A., Noome, D. A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J. D., Van der Sluijs, J. P., Van Dyck, H., & Wiemers, M.; “Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates;” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2015, 22(1), 68-102; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3471-x.

ABSTRACT:

We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section “other invertebrates” review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large-scale and wide ranging negative biological and ecological impacts on a wide range of non-target invertebrates in terrestrial, aquatic, marine and benthic habitats. FULL TEXT


Levine et al., 2017

Levine, H., Jorgensen, N., Martino-Andrade, A., Mendiola, J., Weksler-Derri, D., Mindlis, I., Pinotti, R., & Swan, S. H.; “Temporal trends in sperm count: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis;” Human Reproduction Update, 2017, 23(6), 646-659; DOI: 10.1093/humupd/dmx022.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group.

SEARCH METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for English language studies of human SC published in 1981-2013. Following a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years of sample collection and covariates [fertility group (‘Unselected by fertility’ versus ‘Fertile’), geographic group (‘Western’, including North America, Europe Australia and New Zealand versus ‘Other’, including South America, Asia and Africa), age, ejaculation abstinence time, semen collection method, method of measuring SC and semen volume, exclusion criteria and indicators of completeness of covariate data]. The slopes of SC and TSC were estimated as functions of sample collection year using both simple linear regression and weighted meta-regression models and the latter were adjusted for pre-determined covariates and modification by fertility and geographic group. Assumptions were examined using multiple sensitivity analyses and nonlinear models.

OUTCOMES: SC declined significantly between 1973 and 2011 (slope in unadjusted simple regression models -0.70 million/ml/year; 95% CI: -0.72 to -0.69; P < 0.001; slope in adjusted meta-regression models = -0.64; -1.06 to -0.22; P = 0.003). The slopes in the meta-regression model were modified by fertility (P for interaction = 0.064) and geographic group (P for interaction = 0.027). There was a significant decline in SC between 1973 and 2011 among Unselected Western (-1.38; -2.02 to -0.74; P < 0.001) and among Fertile Western (-0.68; -1.31 to -0.05; P = 0.033), while no significant trends were seen among Unselected Other and Fertile Other. Among Unselected Western studies, the mean SC declined, on average, 1.4% per year with an overall decline of 52.4% between 1973 and 2011. Trends for TSC and SC were similar, with a steep decline among Unselected Western (-5.33 million/year, -7.56 to -3.11; P < 0.001), corresponding to an average decline in mean TSC of 1.6% per year and overall decline of 59.3%. Results changed minimally in multiple sensitivity analyses, and there was no statistical support for the use of a nonlinear model. In a model restricted to data post-1995, the slope both for SC and TSC among Unselected Western was similar to that for the entire period (-2.06 million/ml, -3.38 to -0.74; P = 0.004 and -8.12 million, -13.73 to -2.51, P = 0.006, respectively).

WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because of the significant public health implications of these results, research on the causes of this continuing decline is urgently needed.

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Kezic and Nielsen, 2009

Kezic, S., & Nielsen, J. B.; “Absorption of chemicals through compromised skin;” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2009, 82(6), 677-688; DOI: 10.1007/s00420-009-0405-x.

ABSTRACT:

Skin is an important route of entry for many chemicals in the work place. To assess systemic uptake of a chemical in contact with the skin, quantitative information on dermal absorption rates of chemicals is needed. Absorption rates are mainly obtained from studies performed with intact, healthy skin. At the work place, however, a compromised skin barrier, although not necessarily visible is common, e.g. due to physical and chemical damage. As reviewed in this article, there are several lines of evidence that reduced integrity of the skin barrier may increase dermal absorption of chemicals in the occupational setting. An impaired skin barrier might lead not only to enhanced absorption of a specific chemical, but also to entrance of larger molecules such as proteins and nanoparticles which normally are not able to penetrate intact skin. In addition to environmental influences, there is increasing evidence that some individuals have an intrinsically affected skin barrier which will facilitate entrance of chemicals into and through the skin making these persons more susceptible for local as well for systemic toxicity. This review addresses mechanisms of barrier alteration caused by the most common skin-damaging factors in the occupational settings and the consequences for dermal absorption of chemicals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the importance of maintained barrier properties of the skin. FULL TEXT


Rueda-Ruzafa et al., 2019

Rueda-Ruzafa, L., Cruz, F., Roman, P., & Cardona, D.; “Gut microbiota and neurological effects of glyphosate;” NeuroToxicology, 2019, 75, 1-8; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.08.006.

ABSTRACT:

There are currently various concerns regarding certain environmental toxins and the possible impact they can have on developmental diseases. Glyphosate (Gly) is the most utilised herbicide in agriculture, although its widespread use is generating controversy in the scientific world because of its probable carcinogenic effect on human cells. Gly performs as an inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate synthase (EPSP synthase), not only in plants, but also in bacteria. An inhibiting effect on EPSP synthase from intestinal microbiota has been reported, affecting mainly beneficial bacteria. To the contrary, Clostridium spp. and Salmonella strains are shown to be resistant to Gly. Consequently, researchers have suggested that Gly can cause dysbiosis, a phenomenon which is characterised by an imbalance between beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. The overgrowth of bacteria such as clostridia generates high levels of noxious metabolites in the brain, which can contribute to the development of neurological deviations. This work reviews the impact of Gly-induced intestinal dysbiosis on the central nervous system, focusing on emotional, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. A wide variety of factors were investigated in relation to brain-related changes, including highlighting genetic abnormalities, pregnancy-associated problems, diet, infections, vaccines and heavy metals. However, more studies are required to determine the implication of the most internationally used herbicide, Gly, in behavioural disorders. FULL TEXT


Klingelhöfer et al., 2020

Klingelhöfer, D., Braun, M., Brüggmann, D., & Groneberg, D. A.; “Glyphosate: How do ongoing controversies, market characteristics, and funding influence the global research landscape?;” Science of The Total Environment, 2020, 765, 144271; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144271.

ABSTRACT:

Glyphosate is a systemic broad-spectrum herbicide that is by now the most extensively used herbicide in the world and has been the source for a still heated controversy about its harmful effects on human health and the environment. The different weighting of scientific studies has led to different attitudes in most countries towards appropriate handling and their regulatory authorities. Therefore, an in-depth analysis of the global research landscape on glyphosate is needed to provide the background for further decisions regarding appropriate and careful use, taking into account the different regional conditions. The present study is based on established bibliometric methodological tools and is extended by glyphosate-specific parameters. Chronological and geographical patterns are revealed to determine the incentives and intentions of international scientific efforts. Research output grew in line with the exponential growth in consumption, with the field of research becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and shifting towards environmental and medical disciplines. The countries with the highest herbicide use are also the leading countries in glyphosate research: USA, Brazil, Canada, China and Argentina. The link between publication output and market parameters is as evident as the association with national grants. The research interest of the manufacturing company Monsanto could be shown as the second largest publishing institution behind the US Department of Agriculture, which interest is underscored by its position among the otherwise government-funded organizations. Developing countries are generally underrepresented in glyphosate research, although the use of glyphosate is increasing dramatically. In conclusion, the incentives are strongly linked to market and agricultural interests, with the scientific infrastructure of the countries forming the basis for financing and conducting research. The existing international network is important and needs to be expanded and strengthened by including the lower economies in order to take into account all regional and social needs and aspects of glyphosate use.


Yusa et al., 2015

Yusa, V., Millet, M., Coscolla, C., & Roca, M.; “Analytical methods for human biomonitoring of pesticides. A review;” Analytica Chimica Acta, 2015, 891, 15-31; DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2015.05.032.

ABSTRACT:

Biomonitoring of both currently-used and banned-persistent pesticides is a very useful tool for assessing human exposure to these chemicals. In this review, we present current approaches and recent advances in the analytical methods for determining the biomarkers of exposure to pesticides in the most commonly used specimens, such as blood, urine, and breast milk, and in emerging non-invasive matrices such as hair and meconium. We critically discuss the main applications for sample treatment, and the instrumental techniques currently used to determine the most relevant pesticide biomarkers. We finally look at the future trends in this field. FULL TEXT


Gillezeau et al., 2020

Gillezeau, C., Lieberman-Cribbin, W., & Taioli, E.; “Update on human exposure to glyphosate, with a complete review of exposure in children;” Environmental Health, 2020, 19(1), 115; DOI: 10.1186/s12940-020-00673-z.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate, a commonly used pesticide, has been the topic of much debate. The effects of exposure to glyphosate remains a contentious topic. This paper provides an update to the existing literature regarding levels of glyphosate exposure in occupationally exposed individuals and focuses or reviewing all the available published literature regarding glyphosate exposure levels in children.

METHODS: A literature review was conducted and any articles reporting quantifiable exposure levels in humans published since January 2019 (the last published review on glyphosate exposure) were reviewed and data extracted and standardized.

RESULTS: A total of five new studies reporting exposure levels in humans were found including 578 subjects. Two of these studies focused on occupationally exposed individuals while three of them focused on glyphosate exposure levels in children. Given the sparse nature of the new data, previously identified studies on exposure to glyphosate in children were included in our analysis of children’s exposure. The lowest average level of glyphosate exposure reported was 0.28 μg/L and the highest average exposure levels reported was 4.04 μg/L.

CONCLUSION: The literature on glyphosate exposure levels, especially in children, remains limited. Without more data collected in a standardized way, parsing out the potential relationship between glyphosate exposure and disease will not be possible. FULL TEXT