Bibliography Tag: other health risks

Rezende et al., 2021

Rezende, E.C.N., Carneiro, F.M., de Moraes, J.B. et al. “Trends in science on glyphosate toxicity: a scientometric study.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 56432–56448 (2021). DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14556-4


As part of the most used herbicides, glyphosate is the most successful ingredient of agrochemical companies. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate research trends related to the glyphosate toxicity and its main effects on human and environmental health. For this purpose, 443 articles published, from 1995 to 2020, on the platform Web of Science™ Thomson Reuters were selected. The main toxicity results related in literature are genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. The environmental effects come mostly from the contamination of groundwater and soils. Several studies have concluded that herbicide concentrations right below the official safety limits induced toxic effects. The results presented a highlighted harmful effect of glyphosate on both human and environmental health. It has been observed that countries where publish the most about the glyphosate toxicity are great investors in large-scale agriculture. It is important to ponder that these countries are in a route of ecosystem exploitation that includes not only fauna and flora, but also human beings. Unfortunately, science does not provide concise data for these pesticide disapproval in the global consumer market. It is necessary to search sustainable global interest alternatives to increase agriculture production based on peoples’ food sovereignty. FULL TEXT

Andreotti et al., 2015

Andreotti, G., Hoppin, J. A., Hou, L., Koutros, S., Gadalla, S. M., Savage, S. A., Lubin, J., Blair, A., Hoxha, M., Baccarelli, A., Sandler, D., Alavanja, M., & Beane Freeman, L. E.; “Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study;” Plos One, 2015, 10(7), e0133382; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133382.


Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides.


Cosemans et al., 2021

Cosemans, C., Van Larebeke, N., Janssen, B. G., Martens, D. S., Baeyens, W., Bruckers, L., Den Hond, E., Coertjens, D., Nelen, V., Schoeters, G., Hoppe, H. W., Wolfs, E., Smeets, K., Nawrot, T. S., & Plusquin, M.; “Glyphosate and AMPA exposure in relation to markers of biological aging in an adult population-based study;” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2021, 240, 113895; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113895.


BACKGROUND/AIM: Glyphosate, a broad-spectrum herbicide, and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) are persistent in the environment. Studies showed associations between glyphosate or AMPA exposure and several adverse cellular processes, including metabolic alterations and oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between glyphosate and AMPA exposure and biomarkers of biological aging.

METHODS: We examined glyphosate and AMPA exposure, mtDNA content and leukocyte telomere length in 181 adults, included in the third cycle of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHSIII). DNA was isolated from leukocytes and the relative mtDNA content and telomere length were determined using qPCR. Urinary glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were measured by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). We used multiple linear regression models to associate mtDNA content and leukocyte telomere length with glyphosate or AMPA exposure while adjusting for confounding variables.

RESULTS: A doubling in urinary AMPA concentration was associated with 5.19% (95% CI: 0.oth49 to 10.11; p = 0.03) longer leukocyte telomere length, while no association was observed with urinary glyphosate concentration. No association between mtDNA content and urinary glyphosate nor AMPA levels was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that AMPA exposure may be associated with telomere biology in adults.


Milesi et al., 2021

Milesi, M. M., Lorenz, V., Durando, M., Rossetti, M. F., & Varayoud, J. “Glyphosate Herbicide: Reproductive Outcomes and Multigenerational Effects.” Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. 2021; DOI:10.3389/fendo.2021.672532.


Glyphosate base herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely applied pesticides in the world and are mainly used in association with GBH-tolerant crop varieties. Indiscriminate and negligent use of GBHs has promoted the emergence of glyphosate resistant weeds, and consequently the rise in the use of these herbicides. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of all GBHs, is combined with other chemicals known as co-formulants that enhance the herbicide action. Nowadays, the safety of glyphosate and its formulations remain to be a controversial issue, as evidence is not conclusive whether the adverse effects are caused by GBH or glyphosate, and little is known about the contribution of co-formulants to the toxicity of herbicides. Currently, alarmingly increased levels of glyphosate have been detected in different environmental matrixes and in foodstuff, becoming an issue of social concern. Some in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glyphosate and its formulations exhibit estrogen-like properties, and growing evidence has indicated they may disrupt normal endocrine function, with adverse consequences for reproductive health. Moreover, multigenerational effects have been reported and epigenetic mechanisms have been proved to be involved in the alterations induced by the herbicide. In this review, we provide an overview of: i) the routes and levels of human exposure to GBHs, ii) the potential estrogenic effects of glyphosate and GBHs in cell culture and animal models, iii) their long-term effects on female fertility and mechanisms of action, and iv) the consequences on health of successive generations. FULL TEXT

Crump et al., 2021

Crump, Casey, Groves, Alan, Sundquist, Jan, & Sundquist, Kristina; “Association of Preterm Birth With Long-term Risk of Heart Failure Into Adulthood;” JAMA Pediatrics, 2021, 175(7), 689-697; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0131.


Preterm birth has been associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF) early in life, but its association with new-onset HF in adulthood appears to be unknown. To determine whether preterm birth is associated with increased risk of HF from childhood into mid-adulthood in a large population-based cohort. This national cohort study was conducted in Sweden with data from 1973 through 2015. All singleton live births in Sweden during 1973 through 2014 were included. Gestational age at birth, identified from nationwide birth records. Heart failure, as identified from inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2015. Cox regression was used to determine hazard ratios (HRs) for HF associated with gestational age at birth while adjusting for other perinatal and maternal factors. Cosibling analyses assessed for potential confounding by unmeasured shared familial (genetic and/or environmental) factors. A total of 4 193 069 individuals were included (maximum age, 43 years; median age, 22.5 years). In 85.0 million person-years of follow-up, 4158 persons (0.1%) were identified as having HF (median [interquartile range] age, 15.4 [28.0] years at diagnosis). Preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks) was associated with increased risk of HF at ages younger than 1 year (adjusted HR [aHR], 4.49 [95% CI, 3.86-5.22]), 1 to 17 years (aHR, 3.42 [95% CI, 2.75-4.27]), and 18 to 43 years (aHR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.71]) compared with full-term birth (gestational age, 39-41 weeks). At ages 18 through 43 years, the HRs further stratified by gestational age were 4.72 (95% CI, 2.11-10.52) for extremely preterm births (22-27 weeks), 1.93 (95% CI, 1.37-2.71) for moderately preterm births (28-33 weeks), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.00-1.54) for late preterm births (34-36 weeks), and 1.09 (95% CI, 0.97-1.24) for early term births (37-38 weeks). The corresponding HF incidence rates (per 100 000 person-years) at ages 18 through 43 years were 31.7, 13.8, 8.7, and 7.3, respectively, compared with 6.6 for full-term births. These associations persisted when excluding persons with structural congenital cardiac anomalies. The associations at ages 18 through 43 years (but not <18 years) appeared to be largely explained by shared determinants of preterm birth and HF within families. Preterm birth accounted for a similar number of HF cases among male and female individuals. In this large national cohort, preterm birth was associated with increased risk of new-onset HF into adulthood. Survivors of preterm birth may need long-term clinical follow-up into adulthood for risk reduction and monitoring for HF.

Lee et al., 2017

Lee KM, Park SY, Lee K, Oh SS, Ko SB. “Pesticide metabolite and oxidative stress in male farmers exposed to pesticide.” Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2017 Feb 28;29:5, DOI: 10.1186/s40557-017-0162-3.


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and isoprostane which has been used as an index of lipid injury, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which has been used as an index of DNA damage, and dialkyl-phosphate (DAP), which has been used to quantify pesticide exposure, and to investigate the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress.

METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 84 male farmers exposure to pesticide. In this study, 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA were measured as oxidative stress indices, and dialkyl-phosphate (dimethylphosphate(DMP), diethylphosphate(DEP), dimethylthiophosphate(DMTP), and diethylthiophosphate (DETP)) excreted in the urine was also measured to evaluate pesticide exposure. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between pesticide metabolites, and oxidative stress biomarkers.

RESULTS: A Correlation analysis was performed for pesticide exposure month (PEI), cumulative exposure index (CEI), and DAP as well as the concentration of the oxidative stress biomarkers. The PEM significantly and positively correlated to the levels of 8-OHdG, isoprostane, CEI, and DMP. CEI showed a correlation to 8-OHdG and PEM. DMP, DEP, and DETP showed a positive correlation to 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA. A correlation analysis was adjusted some demographic characteristics, such as age, smoking, drinking, and exercise to determine the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress. The 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA levels were significantly related to the DMP (ß = 0.320), DEP (ß = 0.390), and DETP (ß = 0.082); DMP (ß = 0.396), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.504); and DMP (ß = 0.432), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.329) levels, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The concentration between oxidative stress biomarkers and the pesticide metabolite were a positive correlation. Indicators of oxidative stress was associated with a pesticide metabolite DMP, DEP, and DETP. Therefore, Pesticide exposure and oxidative stress were relevant. FULL TEXT

Haas et al., 2015

Haas, D. M., Parker, C. B., Wing, D. A., Parry, S., Grobman, W. A., Mercer, B. M., Simhan, H. N., Hoffman, M. K., Silver, R. M., Wadhwa, P., Iams, J. D., Koch, M. A., Caritis, S. N., Wapner, R. J., Esplin, M. S., Elovitz, M. A., Foroud, T., Peaceman, A. M., Saade, G. R., Willinger, M., Reddy, U. M., & NuMo, M. b study; “A description of the methods of the Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: monitoring mothers-to-be (nuMoM2b);” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2015, 212(4), 539 e531-539 e524; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2015.01.019.


OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the “Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: monitoring mothers-to-be” is to determine maternal characteristics, which include genetic, physiologic response to pregnancy, and environmental factors that predict adverse pregnancy outcomes.

STUDY DESIGN: Nulliparous women in the first trimester of pregnancy were recruited into an observational cohort study. Participants were seen at 3 study visits during pregnancy and again at delivery. We collected data from in-clinic interviews, take-home surveys, clinical measurements, ultrasound studies, and chart abstractions. Maternal biospecimens (serum, plasma, urine, cervicovaginal fluid) at antepartum study visits and delivery specimens (placenta, umbilical cord, cord blood) were collected, processed, and stored. The primary outcome of the study was defined as pregnancy ending at <37+0 weeks’ gestation. Key study hypotheses involve adverse pregnancy outcomes of spontaneous preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction.

RESULTS: We recruited 10,037 women to the study. Basic characteristics of the cohort at screening are reported.

CONCLUSION: The “Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study: monitoring mothers-to-be” cohort study methods and procedures can help investigators when they plan future projects.


Saldana et al., 2007

Saldana, T. M., Basso, O., Hoppin, J. A., Baird, D. D., Knott, C., Blair, A., Alavanja, M. C., & Sandler, D. P.; “Pesticide exposure and self-reported gestational diabetes mellitus in the Agricultural Health Study;” Diabetes Care, 2007, 30(3), 529-534; DOI: 10.2337/dc06-1832.


OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pesticide use during pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we estimated the association between self-reported pesticide-related activities during the first trimester of the most recent pregnancy and GDM among 11,273 women whose pregnancy occurred within 25 years of enrollment.

RESULTS: A total of 506 (4.5%) women reported having had GDM. Women who reported agricultural pesticide exposure (mixing or applying pesticides to crops or repairing pesticide application equipment) during pregnancy were more likely to report GDM (odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% CI 1.5-3.3]). We saw no association between residential pesticide exposure (applying pesticides in the home and garden during pregnancy) and GDM (1.0 [0.8-1.3]). Among women who reported agricultural exposure during pregnancy, risk of GDM was associated with ever-use of four herbicides (2,4,5-T; 2,4,5-TP; atrazine; or butylate) and three insecticides (diazinon, phorate, or carbofuran).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that activities involving exposure to agricultural pesticides during the first trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of GDM.


Hoppin et al., 2002

Hoppin, Jane A., Umbach, David M, London, Stephanie J., Alavanja, Michael, & Sandler, Dale P.; “Chemical Predictors of Wheeze among Farmer Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study;” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2002, 165, 683-689; DOI: 10.1164/rccm.2106074.


Pesticides may contribute to respiratory symptoms among farmers. Using the Agricultural Health Study, a large cohort of certified pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, we explored the association between wheeze and pesticide use in the past year. Self-administered questionnaires contained items on 40 currently used pesticides and pesticide application practices. A total of 20,468 applicators, ranging in age from 16 to 88 years, provided complete information; 19% reported wheezing in the past year. Logistic regression models controlling for age, state, smoking, and history of asthma or atopy were used to evaluate associations between individual pesticides and wheeze. Among pesticides suspected to contribute to wheeze, paraquat, three organophosphates (parathion, malathion, and chlorpyrifos), and one thiocarbamate (S-ethyl-dipropylthiocarbamate [EPTC]) had elevated odds ratios (OR). Parathion had the highest OR (1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 2.2).

Chlorpyrifos, EPTC, paraquat, and parathion demonstrated significant dose–response trends. The herbicides, atrazine and alachlor, but not 2,4-D, were associated with wheeze. Atrazine had a significant dose–response trend with participants applying atrazine more than 20 days/year having an OR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.2,1.9). Inclusion of crops and animals into these models did not significantly alter the observed OR. These associations, though small, suggest an independent role for specific pesticides in respiratory symptoms of farmers. FULL TEXT

Hernandez et al., 2006

Hernandez, A. F., Amparo Gomez, M., Perez, V., Garcia-Lario, J. V., Pena, G., Gil, F., Lopez, O., Rodrigo, L., Pino, G., & Pla, A.; “Influence of exposure to pesticides on serum components and enzyme activities of cytotoxicity among intensive agriculture farmers;” Environmental Research, 2006, 102(1), 70-76; DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2006.03.002.


Although the effects of acute pesticide poisoning are well known for the pesticides most currently used, hardly any data exist on health effects after long-term low-dose exposures. Major unresolved issues include the effect of moderate exposure in the absence of poisoning. The increased utilization of pesticides other than organophosphates makes it even more difficult to find associations. In this study a cohort of 106 intensive agriculture workers were assessed twice during the course of a spraying season for changes in serum biochemistry, namely enzymes reflecting cytotoxicity (AST, ALT, LDH, CK, and amino-oxidase) and other biochemical parameters, such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea, creatinine) and lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides). Several criteria for estimating pesticide exposure were used, the most important one being serum cholinesterase depression greater than 25% from baseline to peak exposure. Our results revealed an association of pesticide exposure with changes in AST (increased activity), LDH, and amino-oxidase (decreased activity) as well as with changes in serum creatinine and phosphorus (lower and higher levels, respectively). These results provide support for a very slight impairment of the liver function, but overall these findings are consistent with no clinically significant hepatotoxicity. Intriguingly, paraoxonase-1 R allele was found to be an independent predictor of higher rates of AST and lower rates of amino-oxidase, so that it may play a supporting role as an individual marker of susceptibility on pesticide-induced health effects. In conclusion, different biomarkers might be used to detect early biochemical effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. FULL TEXT