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Bibliography Tag: pesticide exposure

Bakke et al., 2009

Bakke, B., De Roos, A. J., Barr, D. B., Stewart, P. A., Blair, A., Freeman, L. B., Lynch, C. F., Allen, R. H., Alavanja, M. C., & Vermeulen, R.; “Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season;” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 2009, 19(6), 544-554; DOI: 10.1038/jes.2008.53.


The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 non-farming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November in 2002 and 2003 on pesticide use and other exposure determinants. Urine samples were collected at 10 time points relative to atrazine application and other farming activities. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolites and diaries. The analytical limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/l for all pesticide analytes except for isazaphos (1.5 microg/l) and diazinon (0.7 microg/l). Farmers had higher geometric mean urinary atrazine mercapturate (AZM) values than controls during planting (1.1 vs <LOD microg/g creatinine; P<0.05). AZM levels among farmers were significantly related to the amount of atrazine applied (P=0.015). Interestingly, farmers had a larger proportion of samples above the LOD than controls even after exclusion of observations with an atrazine application within 7 days before urine collection (38% vs 6%, P<0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for 2,4-D and acetochlor (92% vs 47%, P<0.0001 and 45% vs 4%, P<0.0001, respectively). Urinary AZM levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine. Therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. Elevated background levels of non-persistent pesticides, especially 2,4-D, indicate importance in epidemiologic studies of capturing pesticide exposures that might not be directly related to the actual application.


Bajwa & Sandhu, 2014

Bajwa, U., & Sandhu, K. S.; “Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review;” Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 51(2), 201-220; DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0499-5.


Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article.



Ouidir et al., 2020

Ouidir, M., Buck Louis, G. M., Kanner, J., Grantz, K. L., Zhang, C., Sundaram, R., Rahman, M. L., Lee, S., Kannan, K., Tekola-Ayele, F., & Mendola, P.; “Association of Maternal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants in Early Pregnancy With Fetal Growth;” JAMA Pediatrics, 2020, 174(2), 149-161; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.5104.

IMPORTANCE: Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been associated with birth size, but data on fetal growth and among racially/ethnically diverse pregnant women remain scarce.

OBJECTIVES:  To assess the association between maternal plasma POPs in early pregnancy and fetal growth and by infant sex and maternal race/ethnicity.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:  This cohort study used the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies–Singleton cohort, which recruited nonobese, low-risk pregnant women before 14 weeks’ gestation between July 1, 2009, and January 31, 2013, in 12 community-based clinics throughout the United States. Participants self-identified their race/ethnicity, self-reported their behavioral risk factors, and were followed up throughout their pregnancy. Data were analyzed from July 31, 2018, to June 3, 2019.

EXPOSURESLevels of 76 POPs in early gestation plasma were measured: 11 perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, 1 polybrominated biphenyl, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 44 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The bayesian kernel machine regression method was used to examine chemical class mixtures, and generalized additive mixed model was used to analyze individual chemicals.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Fourteen fetal biometrics were measured, including head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, within 5 ultrasonography appointments.

RESULTS:  A total of 2284 low-risk pregnant women were included: 606 women (26.5%) self-identified as white with a mean (SD) age of 30.3 (4.4) years, 589 (25.8%) as black with a mean (SD) age of 25.5 (5.5) years, 635 (27.8%) as Hispanic with a mean (SD) age of 27.1 (5.5) years, and 454 (19.9%) as Asian with a mean (SD) age of 30.5 (4.5) years. A comparison between the 75th and 25th percentile of exposure revealed that the OCP mixture was negatively associated with most fetal growth measures, with a reduction of 4.7 mm (95% CI, −6.7 to −2.8 mm) in head circumference, 3.5 mm (95% CI, −4.7 to −2.2 mm) in abdominal circumference, and 0.6 mm (95% CI, −1.1 to −0.2 mm) in femur length. Higher exposure to the PBDE mixture was associated with reduced abdominal circumference (–2.4 mm; 95% CI, −4.0 to −0.5 mm) and femur length (−0.5 mm; 95% CI, −1.0 to −0.1 mm), and the dioxin-like PCB mixture was associated with reduced head circumference (–6.4 mm; 95% CI, −8.4 to −4.3 mm) and abdominal circumference (–2.4 mm; 95% CI, −3.9 to −0.8 mm). Associations with individual chemicals were less consistent. There were some interactions by fetal sex, although most of the results did not vary by maternal race/ethnicity. For example, oxychlordane (–0.98 mm; 95% CI, –1.60 to –0.36 mm; P for interaction <.001), trans-nonachlor (–0.31 mm; 95% CI, –0.54 to –0.08 mm; P for interaction = .005), and p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (–0.19 mm; 95% CI, –0.22 to –0.09 mm; P for interaction = .006) were associated with shorter femur length among boys only.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:  This study found that, among pregnant women with low POP levels, a mixture of OCPs was negatively associated with most fetal growth measures and that mixtures of PBDEs and dioxin-like PCBs were associated with reduced abdominal circumference. These findings suggested that, although exposures may be low, associations with fetal growth are apparent.


Bailey, 2004

Bailey, S. W.; “Climate change and decreasing herbicide persistence;” Pest Management Science, 2004, 60(2), 158-162; DOI: 10.1002/ps.785.


A herbicide degradation model, using real weather data for the period 1980-2001, has been used to estimate the change in persistence of autumn-applied isoproturon over this period. The results suggest that soil residues fell to the minimum for weed control on average approximately 30 days earlier over the last 5 years of this period than in the first 5 years, equivalent to a reduction of approximately 25% in the duration of weed control. This decline in persistence is attributed to increasing soil temperature. The results are discussed in relation to recent observations and predictions on climate change. The relevance of the findings to other pesticides and future weed control is considered.

Baharuddin et al., 2011

Baharuddin, M. R., Sahid, I. B., Noor, M. A., Sulaiman, N., & Othman, F.; “Pesticide risk assessment: A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers;” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 2011, 46(7), 600-607; DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2011.589309.


A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

Andreotti et al., 2015

Andreotti, G., Hoppin, J. A., Hou, L., Koutros, S., Gadalla, S. M., Savage, S. A., Lubin, J., Blair, A., Hoxha, M., Baccarelli, A., Sandler, D., Alavanja, M., & Beane Freeman, L. E.; “Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study;” Plos One, 2015, 10(7), e0133382; DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133382.


Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides.


An et al., 2019

An, Xuehua, Liu, Xinju, Jiang, Jinhua, Lv, Lu, Wang, Feidi, Wu, Shenggan, & Zhao, Xueping; “Exposure risks to pesticide applicators posed by the use of electric backpack sprayers and stretcher-mounted sprayers in orchards;” Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 2019, 26(8), 2288-2301; DOI: 10.1080/10807039.2019.1675493.


he introduction of the pesticide registration system in pesticide risk assessments has promoted the scientific and safe use of pesticides, and the assessment of occupational exposure risk. In the present study, we performed an experiment in a citrus orchard subject to normal orchard management practices. By measuring the exposure of applicators’ (farmers and technicians) body parts to 45% malathion emulsifiable concentrate during its application using electric backpack sprayers (0.25KPa) and stretcher-mounted sprayers (1.5 KPa), the unit exposure (UE) was determined. The risks of exposure for pesticide applicators who adopted five different protective measures (A: no personal protective equipment (PPE), i.e., no clothes, no gloves, no caps, and no socks; B: short-sleeved top and shorts; C: short-sleeved top, shorts, and a single pair of gloves; D: short-sleeved top, shorts, a single pair of gloves, and a cap; E: long-sleeved top, long pants, a single pair of gloves, and a cap) were also assessed. The results were as follows: 1) The total levels of exposure for pesticide applicators using electric backpack sprayers and stretchermounted sprayers were 3613.63 mg and 5654.28mg, respectively. When electric backpack sprayers were used, the body parts that had the highest exposure were the head (13.8%), hands (19.9%) and back (14.0%), and when stretcher-mounted sprayers were used, the hands (32.5%) and lower legs (21.1%) had the highest level of exposure; 2) In the absence of PPE, the UE values for farmers who used electric backpack sprayers and farmers who used stretcher-mounted sprayers were significantly different. However, when PPE was used, the difference in UE values between the farmers using the two different types of sprayers was not significant; 3) When protective measure A was adopted, the risk quotient (RQ) values of the farmers and technicians who used electric backpack sprayers for the application of malathion were 1.44 and 0.54, respectively; the corresponding RQ values when protective measure B was adopted were 0.97 and 0.28, respectively. When stretcher-mounted sprayers were used for the application of chlorpyrifos, the RQ value of the farmers who adopted protective measure E was 0.43 while other types of PPE use resulted in RQ values greater than 1. In contrast, the RQ value for technicians was 1.62 when protective measure A was used and 1.02 when protective measure B was adopted, whereas other types of PPE use resulted in RQ values less than 1. Therefore, besides increasing the awareness of personal protection among pesticide applicators, improvement in the management of pesticide use and the enhancement of standard operations are of practical significance for controlling occupational exposure to pesticides.

Alexander et al., 2007

Alexander, B. H., Mandel, J. S., Baker, B. A., Burns, C. J., Bartels, M. J., Acquavella, J. F., & Gustin, C.; “Biomonitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid exposure and dose in farm families;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115(3), 370-376; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.8869.


OBJECTIVE: We estimated 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) exposure and systemic dose in farm family members following an application of 2,4-D on their farm.

METHODS: Farm families were recruited from licensed applicators in Minnesota and South Carolina. Eligible family members collected all urine during five 24-hr intervals, 1 day before through 3 days after an application of 2,4-D. Exposure profiles were characterized with 24-hr urine 2,4-D concentrations, which then were related to potential predictors of exposure. Systemic dose was estimated using the urine collections from the application day through the third day after application.

RESULTS: Median urine 2,4-D concentrations at baseline and day after application were 2.1 and 73.1 microg/L for applicators, below the limit of detection, and 1.2 microg/L for spouses, and 1.5 and 2.9 microg/L for children. The younger children (4-11 years of age) had higher median post-application concentrations than the older children (> or = 12 years of age) (6.5 vs. 1.9 microg/L). The geometric mean systemic doses (micrograms per kilogram body weight) were 2.46 (applicators), 0.8 (spouses), 0.22 (all children), 0.32 (children 4-11 years of age), and 0.12 (children > or = 12 years of age). Exposure to the spouses and children was primarily determined by direct contact with the application process and the number of acres treated. Multivariate models identified glove use, repairing equipment, and number of acres treated as predictors of exposure in the applicators.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed considerable heterogeneity of 2,4-D exposure among farm family members, primarily attributable to level of contact with the application process. Awareness of this variability and the actual magnitude of exposures are important for developing exposure and risk characterizations in 2,4-D-exposed agricultural populations.


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