Bibliography Tag: weed management systems

Rezende et al., 2021

Rezende, E.C.N., Carneiro, F.M., de Moraes, J.B. et al. “Trends in science on glyphosate toxicity: a scientometric study.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 56432–56448 (2021). DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14556-4


As part of the most used herbicides, glyphosate is the most successful ingredient of agrochemical companies. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate research trends related to the glyphosate toxicity and its main effects on human and environmental health. For this purpose, 443 articles published, from 1995 to 2020, on the platform Web of Science™ Thomson Reuters were selected. The main toxicity results related in literature are genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. The environmental effects come mostly from the contamination of groundwater and soils. Several studies have concluded that herbicide concentrations right below the official safety limits induced toxic effects. The results presented a highlighted harmful effect of glyphosate on both human and environmental health. It has been observed that countries where publish the most about the glyphosate toxicity are great investors in large-scale agriculture. It is important to ponder that these countries are in a route of ecosystem exploitation that includes not only fauna and flora, but also human beings. Unfortunately, science does not provide concise data for these pesticide disapproval in the global consumer market. It is necessary to search sustainable global interest alternatives to increase agriculture production based on peoples’ food sovereignty. FULL TEXT

Baker et al., 2020

Baker, Brian P., Green, Thomas A., & Loker, Ali J.; “Biological control and integrated pest management in organic and conventional systems;” Biological Control, 2020, 140; DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2019.104095.


More resilient and sustainable approaches are urgently needed to minimize crop yield losses resulting from pest activity and reduce impacts of pest management on human health and the environment. Increasing implementation of biological approaches, including biological control, biopesticides, biostimulants and pheromones is a mutual high priority for sustainable agriculture leaders and practitioners, including those working in organic agriculture and Integrated Pest Management (IPM). While market and regulatory forces, and pest resistance to conventional pesticides are contributing to growth in implementation of biological approaches, they remain a very small percentage of the overall global crop protection portfolio. Barriers to greater adoption include many of the same barriers to adopting IPM techniques or transitioning to organic. Improved awareness and understanding of the histories and benefits of organic and IPM, goals and priorities shared by organic and IPM proponents and practitioners, and opportunities for accelerating adoption of biological approaches have potential to improve our combined effectiveness in overcoming these barriers. Strategies to speed adoption include increased education and extension on proven, ready-to-use biological control options; full cost and benefit accounting for biologically-based alternatives to chemical controls; and public and private sector policies to encourage biological control and reduce reliance on chemical controls. Both the organic and IPM communities of practice stand to gain from collaboration on common interests and goals.  FULL TEXT

Jugulam et al., 2018

Jugulam, Mithila, Varanasi, Aruna K., Varanasi, Vijaya K., & Prasad, P. V. V. (2018). Climate Change Influence on Herbicide Efficacy and Weed Management. In S. S. Yadav, R. J. Redden, J. L. Hatfield, A. W. Ebert, & D. Hunter (Eds.), Food Security and Climate Change (First ed., pp. 433-448): John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Climate change refers to a change in the climate system that persists for long periods of time, irrespective of the cause. Since the industrial revolution, climate change has been more often associated with a rise in the concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, nitrous oxide, and halocarbons. The concentration of atmospheric CO2 is steadily rising and is expected to reach ∼1000 μmolmol−1 by the year 2100 with a simultaneous increase of 2–4∘C in the earth’s annual surface temperature (IPCC, 2013). Human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation have contributed to a large extent to the emission of greenhouse gases (IPCC 2013, MacCracken et al., 1990). Continued emission of these gases may lead to unprecedented climate changes involving high global temperatures, erratic precipitation and wind patterns, and weather extremities such as droughts, floods, and severe storms (Tubiello et al., 2007; Robinson and Gross, 2010; Gillett et al., 2011; Coumou and Rahmstorf, 2012). Such extreme weather events and rapid climatic changes will have major impacts on the stability of ecosystems; consequently influencing plant life and agriculture (Dukes and Mooney, 1999). Crop production and agronomic practices involving weed management and pest control may be severely affected by these altered abiotic conditions primarily caused by changes in climate and climate variability (Dukes et al., 2009, Singer et al., 2013). Warmer and wetter climates not only affect weed growth but also change chemical properties of certain herbicides; thereby altering their performance on weeds and their control (Poorter and Navas, 2003; Dukes et al., 2009). Determining the response of weeds and herbicides to increased CO2 levels and associated changes in other climate variables is critical to optimize weed management strategies in the context of climate change. This chapter provides an overview of the impacts of climate change factors on weed growth and herbicide efficacy, particularly focusing on the impacts of climate factors on the underlying physiological mechanisms that determine herbicide performance. FULL TEXT

Delcour et al., 2015

Delcour, Ilse, Spanoghe, Pieter, & Uyttendaele, Mieke; “Literature review: Impact of climate change on pesticide use;” Food Research International, 2015, 68, 7-15; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.09.030.


Agricultural yields strongly depend on crop protection measures. The main purpose of pesticide use is to increase food security, with a secondary goal being increased standard of living. In view of a changing climate, not only crop yields but also pesticide use is expected to be affected. Therefore, an analysis of the detailed effect of changing climatic variables on pesticide use is conducted. Not only effects on cultivated crops, occurring pests and pesticide efficiency are considered but also implications for technological development, regulations and the economic situation are included as all of these aspects can influence pesticide use. The objective of this review is to gain insights into the specific effect of climate change on the consumer exposure caused by pesticide residues on crops. In terms of climate change, temperature increase and changes in precipitation patterns are the main pest and pathogen infection determinants. An increased pesticide use is expected in form of higher amounts, doses, frequencies and different varieties or types of products applied. Climate change will reduce environmental concentrations of pesticides due to a combination of increased volatilization and accelerated degradation, both strongly affected by a high moisture content, elevated temperatures and direct exposure to sunlight. Pesticide dissipation seems also to be benefitted by higher amounts of precipitation. To overcome this, pesticide use might be changed. An adapted pesticide use will finally impact consumer exposure at the end of the food chain. FULL TEXT

Chodhury & Saha, 2021

Choudhury, P. P., & Saha, S.; “Dynamics of pesticides under changing climatic scenario;” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 2021, 192(Suppl 1), 814; DOI: 10.1007/s10661-020-08719-y.


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Ziska, 2020

Ziska, Lewis H.; “Climate Change and the Herbicide Paradigm: Visiting the Future;” Agronomy, 2020, 10(12); DOI: 10.3390/agronomy10121953.


Weeds are recognized globally as a major constraint to crop production and food security. In recent decades, that constraint has been minimized through the extensive use of herbicides in conjunction with genetically modified resistant crops. However, as is becoming evident, such a stratagem is resulting in evolutionary selection for widespread herbicide resistance and the need for a reformation of current practices regarding weed management. Whereas such a need is recognized within the traditional auspices of weed science, it is also imperative to include emerging evidence that rising levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and climatic shifts will impose additional selection pressures that will, in turn, affect herbicide efficacy. The goal of the current perspective is to provide historical context of herbicide use, outline the biological basis for CO2/climate impacts on weed biology, and address the need to integrate this information to provide a long-term sustainable paradigm for weed management. FULL TEXT

Vilà et al., 2021

Vilà, Montserrat, Beaury, Evelyn M., Blumenthal, Dana M., Bradley, Bethany A., Early, Regan, Laginhas, Brittany B., Trillo, Alejandro, Dukes, Jeffrey S., Sorte, Cascade J. B., & Ibáñez, Inés; “Understanding the combined impacts of weeds and climate change on crops;” Environmental Research Letters, 2021, 16(3); DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abe14b.


Crops worldwide are simultaneously affected by weeds, which reduce yield, and by climate change, which can negatively or positively affect both crop and weed species. While the individual effects of environmental change and of weeds on crop yield have been assessed, the combined effects have not been broadly characterized. To explore the simultaneous impacts of weeds with changes in climate-related environmental conditions on future food production, we conducted a meta-analysis of 171 observations measuring the individual and combined effects of weeds and elevated CO2, drought or warming on 23 crop species. The combined effect of weeds and environmental change tended to be additive. On average, weeds reduced crop yield by 28%, a value that was not significantly different from the simultaneous effect of weeds and environmental change (27%), due to increased variability when acting together. The negative effect of weeds on crop yield was mitigated by elevated CO2 and warming, but added to the negative effect of drought. The impact of weeds with environmental change was also dependent on the photosynthetic pathway of the weed/crop pair and on crop identity. Native and non-native weeds had similarly negative effects on yield, with or without environmental change. Weed impact with environmental change was also independent of whether the crop was infested with a single or multiple weed species. Since weed impacts remain negative under environmental change, our results highlight the need to evaluate the efficacy of different weed management practices under climate change. Understanding that the effects of environmental change and weeds are, on average, additive brings us closer to developing useful forecasts of future crop performance. FULL TEXT

Ziska, 2016

Ziska, Lewis H.; “The role of climate change and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide on weed management: Herbicide efficacy;” Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 2016, 231, 304-309; DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2016.07.014.

ABSTRACT: Rising concentrations of carbon dioxide [CO2] and a changing climate will almost certainly affect weed biology and demographics with consequences for crop productivity. The extent of such consequences could be minimal if weed management, particularly the widespread and effective use of herbicides, minimizes any future risk; but, such an outcome assumes that [CO2] or climate change will not affect herbicide efficacy per se. Is this a fair assumption? While additional data are greatly desired, there is sufficient information currently available to begin an initial assessment of both the physical and biological constraints likely to occur before, during and following herbicide application. The assessment provided here, while preliminary, reviews a number of physical and biological interactions that are likely, overall, to significantly reduce herbicide efficacy. These interactions can range from climatic extremes that influence spray coverage and field access to direct effects of [CO2] or temperature on plant biochemistry and morphology. Identification of these mechanisms will be essential to both understand and strengthen weed management strategies associated with rising levels of [CO2] in the context of an uncertain and rapidly changing climate.

LaCanne and Lundgren, 2018

LaCanne, C. E., & Lundgren, J. G.; “Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably;” PeerJ, 2018, 6, e4428; DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4428.


Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ, farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results. FULL TEXT

Mariyono, 2008

Mariyono, Joko; “Direct and indirect impacts of integrated pest management on pesticide use: a case of rice agriculture in Java, Indonesia;” Pest Management Science, 2008, 64(10), 1069-1073; DOI:10.1002/ps.1602.


BACKGROUND: Integrated pest management (IPM) technology has been disseminated since 1989 in Indonesia to cut down pesticide use, but the adoption and diffusion of the technology are still debated. This study aims to estimate the models of demand for pesticides and to analyse the impact of IPM technology on pesticide use. Aggregate cross-section time series data from 1990-1998 are used.

RESULTS: The results show that IPM technology reduces the use of pesticides by improving the process of rice production, such that pesticides are more efficiently used. In this case, the IPM technology is not a pest control technique.

CONCLUSION There is an indication that IPM technology has been adopted by farmers. This is evidence that the IPM programme in Indonesia was successful in this area. Copyright ? 2008 Society of Chemical Industry