Jensen PK, Wujcik CE, McGuire MK, McGuire MA, “Validation of reliable and selective methods for direct determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in milk and urine using LC-MS/MS,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health – Part B, 2016, 51:4, DOI: 10.1080/03601234.2015.1120619.
Simple high-throughput procedures were developed for the direct analysis of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in human and bovine milk and human urine matrices. Samples were extracted with an acidified aqueous solution on a high-speed shaker. Stable isotope labeled internal standards were added with the extraction solvent to ensure accurate tracking and quantitation. An additional cleanup procedure using partitioning with methylene chloride was required for milk matrices to minimize the presence of matrix components that can impact the longevity of the analytical column. Both analytes were analyzed directly, without derivatization, by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using two separate precursor-to-product transitions that ensure and confirm the accuracy of the measured results. Method performance was evaluated during validation through a series of assessments that included linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity, ionization effects and carryover. Limits of quantitation (LOQ) were determined to be 0.1 and 10 µg/L (ppb) for urine and milk, respectively, for both glyphosate and AMPA. Mean recoveries for all matrices were within 89-107% at three separate fortification levels including the LOQ. Precision for replicates was ≤ 7.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) for milk and ≤ 11.4% RSD for urine across all fortification levels. All human and bovine milk samples used for selectivity and ionization effects assessments were free of any detectable levels of glyphosate and AMPA. Some of the human urine samples contained trace levels of glyphosate and AMPA, which were background subtracted for accuracy assessments. Ionization effects testing showed no significant biases from the matrix. A successful independent external validation was conducted using the more complicated milk matrices to demonstrate method transferability. FULL TEXT