Bibliography Tag: ampa

Arregui et al., 2004

Arregui, M. C., Lenardon, A., Sanchez, D., Maitre, M. I., Scotta, R., & Enrique, S.; “Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean;” Pest Management Science, 2004, 60(2), 163-166; DOI: 10.1002/ps.775. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14971683.

ABSTRACT:

The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.


Franke et al., 2020

Franke, A. A., Li, X., & Lai, J. F.; “Analysis of glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid, and glufosinate from human urine by HRAM LC-MS;” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s00216-020-02966-1.

ABSTRACT:

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the main metabolite of glyphosate (GLYP) and phosphonic acids in detergents. GLYP is a synthetic herbicide frequently used worldwide alone or together with its analog glufosinate (GLUF). The general public can be exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals; thus, sensitive methods to monitor them in humans are urgently required to evaluate health risks. We attempted to simultaneously detect GLYP, AMPA, and GLUF in human urine by high-resolution accurate-mass liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) before and after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) or 1-methylimidazole-sulfonyl chloride (ImS-Cl) with several urine pre-treatment and solid phase extraction (SPE) steps. Fmoc-Cl derivatization achieved the best combination of method sensitivity (limit of detection; LOD) and accuracy for all compounds compared to underivatized urine or ImS-Cl-derivatized urine. Before derivatization, the best steps for GLYP involved 0.4 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) pre-treatment followed by SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 37 pg/mL), for AMPA involved no EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 20 pg/mL) or 0.2-0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment with no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 19-21 pg/mL), and for GLUF involved 0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 7 pg/mL). However, for these methods, accuracy was sufficient only for AMPA (101-105%), while being modest for GLYP (61%) and GLUF (63%). Different EDTA and SPE treatments prior to Fmoc-Cl derivatization resulted in high sensitivity for all analytes but satisfactory accuracy only for AMPA. Thus, we conclude that our HRAM LC-MS method is suited for urinary AMPA analysis in cross-sectional studies. FULL TEXT


Connolly et al., 2020

Connolly, A., Coggins, M. A., & Koch, H. M.; “Human Biomonitoring of Glyphosate Exposures: State-of-the-Art and Future Research Challenges;” Toxics, 2020, 8(3); DOI: 10.3390/toxics8030060. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32824707.

ABSTRACT:

Glyphosate continues to attract controversial debate following the International Agency for Research on Cancer carcinogenicity classification in 2015. Despite its ubiquitous presence in our environment, there remains a dearth of data on human exposure to both glyphosate and its main biodegradation product aminomethylphosphonic (AMPA). Herein, we reviewed and compared results from 21 studies that use human biomonitoring (HBM) to measure urinary glyphosate and AMPA. Elucidation of the level and range of exposure was complicated by differences in sampling strategy, analytical methods, and data presentation. Exposure data is required to enable a more robust regulatory risk assessment, and these studies included higher occupational exposures, environmental exposures, and vulnerable groups such as children. There was also considerable uncertainty regarding the absorption and excretion pattern of glyphosate and AMPA in humans. This information is required to back-calculate exposure doses from urinary levels and thus, compared with health-based guidance values. Back-calculations based on animal-derived excretion rates suggested that there were no health concerns in relation to glyphosate exposure (when compared with EFSA acceptable daily intake (ADI)). However, recent human metabolism data has reported as low as a 1% urinary excretion rate of glyphosate. Human exposures extrapolated from urinary glyphosate concentrations found that upper-bound levels may be much closer to the ADI than previously reported. FULL TEXT


Williams et al., 2000

Williams, G. M., Kroes, R., & Munro, I. C.; “Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans;” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2000, 31(2 Pt 1), 117-165; DOI: 10.1006/rtph.1999.1371.

ABSTRACT:

Reviews on the safety of glyphosate and Roundup herbicide that have been conducted by several regulatory agencies and scientific institutions worldwide have concluded that there is no indication of any human health concern. Nevertheless, questions regarding their safety are periodically raised. This review was undertaken to produce a current and comprehensive safety evaluation and risk assessment for humans. It includes assessments of glyphosate, its major breakdown product [aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)], its Roundup formulations, and the predominant surfactant [polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA)] used in Roundup formulations worldwide. The studies evaluated in this review included those performed for regulatory purposes as well as published research reports. The oral absorption of glyphosate and AMPA is low, and both materials are eliminated essentially unmetabolized. Dermal penetration studies with Roundup showed very low absorption. Experimental evidence has shown that neither glyphosate nor AMPA bioaccumulates in any animal tissue. No significant toxicity occurred in acute, subchronic, and chronic studies. Direct ocular exposure to the concentrated Roundup formulation can result in transient irritation, while normal spray dilutions cause, at most, only minimal effects. The genotoxicity data for glyphosate and Roundup were assessed using a weight-of-evidence approach and standard evaluation criteria. There was no convincing evidence for direct DNA damage in vitro or in vivo, and it was concluded that Roundup and its components do not pose a risk for the production of heritable/somatic mutations in humans. Multiple lifetime feeding studies have failed to demonstrate any tumorigenic potential for glyphosate. Accordingly, it was concluded that glyphosate is noncarcinogenic. Glyphosate, AMPA, and POEA were not teratogenic or developmentally toxic. There were no effects on fertility or reproductive parameters in two multigeneration reproduction studies with glyphosate. Likewise there were no adverse effects in reproductive tissues from animals treated with glyphosate, AMPA, or POEA in chronic and/or subchronic studies. Results from standard studies with these materials also failed to show any effects indicative of endocrine modulation. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of Roundup herbicide does not result in adverse effects on development, reproduction, or endocrine systems in humans and other mammals. For purposes of risk assessment, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were identified for all subchronic, chronic, developmental, and reproduction studies with glyphosate, AMPA, and POEA. Margins-of-exposure for chronic risk were calculated for each compound by dividing the lowest applicable NOAEL by worst-case estimates of chronic exposure. Acute risks were assessed by comparison of oral LD50 values to estimated maximum acute human exposure. It was concluded that, under present and expected conditions of use, Roundup herbicide does not pose a health risk to humans.


Perry et al., 2019

Perry, M. J., Mandrioli, D., Belpoggi, F., Manservisi, F., Panzacchi, S., & Irwin, C.; “Historical evidence of glyphosate exposure from a US agricultural cohort;” Environmental Health, 2019, 18(1), 42; DOI: 10.1186/s12940-019-0474-6.

ABSTRACT:

In response to the recent review by Gillezeau et al., The evidence of human exposure to glyphosate: A review, Environmental Health 1/19/19, here we report additional glyphosate biomonitoring data from a repository of urine samples collected from United States farmers in 1997-98. To determine if glyphosate exposure could be identified historically, we examined urine samples from a biorepository of specimens collected from US dairy farmers between 1997 and 98. We compared samples from farmers who self-reported glyphosate application in the 8 h prior to sample collection to samples from farm applicators who did not report using glyphosate. Of 18 applicator samples tested, 39% showed detectable levels of glyphosate (mean concentration 4.04 mug/kg; range:1.3-12) compared to 0% detections among 17 non glyphosate applicator samples (p-value < 0.01). One of the applicator samples that tested positive for glyphosate also tested positive for AMPA. Concentrations of glyphosate were consistent with levels reported in the prior occupational biomonitoring studies reviewed by Gillezeau et al.Accurately detecting both glyphosate and AMPA in this small sample of Wisconsin farmers demonstrates a) glyphosate exposures among farmers were occurring 20 years ago, which was prior to the widespread planting of genetically engineered glyphosate tolerant crops first approved in 1996; and b) liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be used for sensitive characterization in cryopreserved urine samples. These data offer an important historical benchmark to which urinary levels from current and future biomonitoring studies can be compared. FULL TEXT


Balderrama-Carmona et al., 2019

Balderrama-Carmona, A. P., Valenzuela-Rincon, M., Zamora-Alvarez, L. A., Adan-Bante, N. P., Leyva-Soto, L. A., Silva-Beltran, N. P., & Moran-Palacio, E. F.; “Herbicide biomonitoring in agricultural workers in Valle del Mayo, Sonora Mexico;” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-07087-6.

ABSTRACT:

Valle del Mayo is an important agricultural area at the northwest of Mexico where up to 20,000 L of a mix composed of glyphosate and tordon is used in drains and canals. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the cellular damage caused by glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and picloram in agricultural workers. Biomonitoring was performed through the quantification of herbicides in urine using HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to then evaluate the cellular damage in exposed people by means of an evaluation of micronuclei and cellular proliferation in lymphocyte cultures. The urine samples (n = 30) have shown a concentration of up to 10.25 mug/L of picloram and 2.23 mug/L of AMPA; no positive samples for glyphosate were reported. The calculation of the external dose reveals that agricultural workers ingest up to 146 mg/kg/day; however, this concentration does not surpass the limits that are allowed internationally. As for the results for the micronuclei test, 53% of the workers showed cellular damage, and the nuclear division index test reported that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the exposed and the control population, which indicated that the exposure time to pesticides in the people of Valle del Mayo can induce alterations which can cause chronic damage. FULL TEXT


Maggi et al., 2020

Maggi, Federico, la Cecilia, Daniele, Tang, Fiona H. M., & McBratney, Alexander; “The global environmental hazard of glyphosate use;” Science of The Total Environment, 2020, 717; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137167.

ABSTRACT:

Agricultural pesticides can become persistent environmental pollutants. Among many, glyphosate (GLP) is under particular scrutiny because of its extensive use and its alleged threats to the ecosystem and human health. Here, we introduce the first global environmental contamination analysis of GLP and its metabolite, AMPA, conducted with a mechanistic dynamic model at 0.5×0.5 degree spatial resolution (about 55 km at the equator) fed with geographically-distributed agricultural quantities, soil and biogeochemical properties, and hydroclimatic variables. Our analyses reveal that about 1% of croplands worldwide (385,000 km2) are susceptible to mid to high contamination hazard and less than 0.1% has a high hazard. Hotspots found in South America, Europe, and East and South Asia were mostly correlated to widespread GLP use in pastures, soybean, and corn; diffuse contributing processes were mainly biodegradation recalcitrance and persistence, while soil residue accumulation and leaching below the root zone contributed locally to the hazard in hotspots. Hydroclimatic and soil variables were major controlling factors of contamination hotspots. The relatively low risk of environmental exposure highlighted in our work for a single active substance does not rule out a greater recognition of environmental pollution by pesticides and calls for worldwide cooperation to develop timely standards and implement regulated strategies to prevent excess global environmental pollution. FULL TEXT


Silva et al., 2018

Silva, V., Montanarella, L., Jones, A., Fernandez-Ugalde, O., Mol, H. G. J., Ritsema, C. J., & Geissen, V.; “Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union;” Science of The Total Environment, 2018, 621, 1352-1359; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.093.

ABSTRACT:

Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in EU agricultural topsoils, and estimate their potential spreading by wind and water erosion. Glyphosate and/or AMPA were present in 45% of the topsoils collected, originating from eleven countries and six crop systems, with a maximum concentration of 2mgkg(-1). Several glyphosate and AMPA hotspots were identified across the EU. Soil loss rates (obtained from recently derived European maps) were used to estimate the potential export of glyphosate and AMPA by wind and water erosion. The estimated exports, result of a conceptually simple model, clearly indicate that particulate transport can contribute to human and environmental exposure to herbicide residues. Residue threshold values in soils are urgently needed to define potential risks for soil health and off site effects related to export by wind and water erosion. FULL TEXT


Van Stempvoort et al., 2014

Van Stempvoort, D. R., Roy, J. W., Brown, S. J., & Bickerton, G.; “Residues of the herbicide glyphosate in riparian groundwater in urban catchments;” Chemosphere, 2014, 95, 455-463; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.095.

ABSTRACT:

The herbicide glyphosate and its putative metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) have been found in urban streams, but limited information is available on their presence in urban riparian groundwater. Information is also lacking regarding the source of AMPA in these urban settings (glyphosate metabolite or wastewater), and whether, if present, glyphosate residues in urban riparian groundwater contribute significantly to urban streams. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in shallow riparian groundwater at 4 of 5 stream sites in urban catchments in Canada and each were found in approximately 1 in 10 of the samples overall. Frequency of observations of glyphosate and AMPA varied substantially between sites, from no observations in a National Park near the Town of Jasper Alberta, to observations of both glyphosate and AMPA in more than half of the samples along two short reaches of streams in Burlington, Ontario. In these two catchments, AMPA was correlated with glyphosate, rather than the artificial sweetener acesulfame, suggesting that the AMPA is derived mainly from glyphosate degradation rather than from wastewater sources. Land use, localized dosage history, depth below ground and other factors likely control the occurrence of detectable glyphosate residues in groundwater. FULL TEXT


Aparicio et al., 2018

Aparicio, Virginia C., Aimar, Silvia, De Gerónimo, Eduardo, Mendez, Mariano J., & Costa, José L.; “Glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wind-blown material under field conditions;” Land Degradation & Development, 2018, 29(5), 1317-1326; DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2920.

ABSTRACT:

Agricultural intensification in fragile arid and semiarid environments has led to an increase in soil degradation, mainly through wind erosion. Argentina is an agricultural and cattle‐farming country, which has increased its productivity in the last few decades, widening the boundaries of farm land and the use of herbicides to control weeds. Glyphosate, which accounts for 65% of the Argentinian pesticides market, is strongly retained in soil. The World Health Organization concluded that there was evidence to classify glyphosate as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans.’ In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and concentration of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in wind‐blown material in 3 areas in Argentine semiarid regions (Chaco, La Pampa, and San Luis). In 1‐ha2 plots, left uncovered and levelled, the wind‐blown material was collected at heights of 13.5, 50, and 150 cm during 18 erosion events. The wind‐blown material carried by the wind at a height of 150 cm had concentrations of 247 and 218 μgkg−1 of glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. This material was enriched 60 times in glyphosate and 3 times in AMPA as compared with the original soil. This shows that the eroded material can, potentially, have a negative impact on the ecosystem and also on human health, depending on the proportion of this material released into the atmosphere in suspension as particulate matter. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to report concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind‐blown material under field conditions. FULL TEXT