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Bibliography Tag: ampa

Perry et al., 2019

Perry, M. J., Mandrioli, D., Belpoggi, F., Manservisi, F., Panzacchi, S., & Irwin, C.; “Historical evidence of glyphosate exposure from a US agricultural cohort;” Environmental Health, 2019, 18(1), 42; DOI: 10.1186/s12940-019-0474-6.


In response to the recent review by Gillezeau et al., The evidence of human exposure to glyphosate: A review, Environmental Health 1/19/19, here we report additional glyphosate biomonitoring data from a repository of urine samples collected from United States farmers in 1997-98. To determine if glyphosate exposure could be identified historically, we examined urine samples from a biorepository of specimens collected from US dairy farmers between 1997 and 98. We compared samples from farmers who self-reported glyphosate application in the 8 h prior to sample collection to samples from farm applicators who did not report using glyphosate. Of 18 applicator samples tested, 39% showed detectable levels of glyphosate (mean concentration 4.04 mug/kg; range:1.3-12) compared to 0% detections among 17 non glyphosate applicator samples (p-value < 0.01). One of the applicator samples that tested positive for glyphosate also tested positive for AMPA. Concentrations of glyphosate were consistent with levels reported in the prior occupational biomonitoring studies reviewed by Gillezeau et al.Accurately detecting both glyphosate and AMPA in this small sample of Wisconsin farmers demonstrates a) glyphosate exposures among farmers were occurring 20 years ago, which was prior to the widespread planting of genetically engineered glyphosate tolerant crops first approved in 1996; and b) liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be used for sensitive characterization in cryopreserved urine samples. These data offer an important historical benchmark to which urinary levels from current and future biomonitoring studies can be compared. FULL TEXT

Balderrama-Carmona et al., 2019

Balderrama-Carmona, A. P., Valenzuela-Rincon, M., Zamora-Alvarez, L. A., Adan-Bante, N. P., Leyva-Soto, L. A., Silva-Beltran, N. P., & Moran-Palacio, E. F.; “Herbicide biomonitoring in agricultural workers in Valle del Mayo, Sonora Mexico;” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-07087-6.


Valle del Mayo is an important agricultural area at the northwest of Mexico where up to 20,000 L of a mix composed of glyphosate and tordon is used in drains and canals. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the cellular damage caused by glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and picloram in agricultural workers. Biomonitoring was performed through the quantification of herbicides in urine using HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to then evaluate the cellular damage in exposed people by means of an evaluation of micronuclei and cellular proliferation in lymphocyte cultures. The urine samples (n = 30) have shown a concentration of up to 10.25 mug/L of picloram and 2.23 mug/L of AMPA; no positive samples for glyphosate were reported. The calculation of the external dose reveals that agricultural workers ingest up to 146 mg/kg/day; however, this concentration does not surpass the limits that are allowed internationally. As for the results for the micronuclei test, 53% of the workers showed cellular damage, and the nuclear division index test reported that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the exposed and the control population, which indicated that the exposure time to pesticides in the people of Valle del Mayo can induce alterations which can cause chronic damage. FULL TEXT

Maggi et al., 2020

Maggi, Federico, la Cecilia, Daniele, Tang, Fiona H. M., & McBratney, Alexander; “The global environmental hazard of glyphosate use;” Science of The Total Environment, 2020, 717; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137167.


Agricultural pesticides can become persistent environmental pollutants. Among many, glyphosate (GLP) is under particular scrutiny because of its extensive use and its alleged threats to the ecosystem and human health. Here, we introduce the first global environmental contamination analysis of GLP and its metabolite, AMPA, conducted with a mechanistic dynamic model at 0.5×0.5 degree spatial resolution (about 55 km at the equator) fed with geographically-distributed agricultural quantities, soil and biogeochemical properties, and hydroclimatic variables. Our analyses reveal that about 1% of croplands worldwide (385,000 km2) are susceptible to mid to high contamination hazard and less than 0.1% has a high hazard. Hotspots found in South America, Europe, and East and South Asia were mostly correlated to widespread GLP use in pastures, soybean, and corn; diffuse contributing processes were mainly biodegradation recalcitrance and persistence, while soil residue accumulation and leaching below the root zone contributed locally to the hazard in hotspots. Hydroclimatic and soil variables were major controlling factors of contamination hotspots. The relatively low risk of environmental exposure highlighted in our work for a single active substance does not rule out a greater recognition of environmental pollution by pesticides and calls for worldwide cooperation to develop timely standards and implement regulated strategies to prevent excess global environmental pollution. FULL TEXT

Silva et al., 2018

Silva, V., Montanarella, L., Jones, A., Fernandez-Ugalde, O., Mol, H. G. J., Ritsema, C. J., & Geissen, V.; “Distribution of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in agricultural topsoils of the European Union;” Science of The Total Environment, 2018, 621, 1352-1359; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.093.


Approval for glyphosate-based herbicides in the European Union (EU) is under intense debate due to concern about their effects on the environment and human health. The occurrence of glyphosate residues in European water bodies is rather well documented whereas only few, fragmented and outdated information is available for European soils. We provide the first large-scale assessment of distribution (occurrence and concentrations) of glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in EU agricultural topsoils, and estimate their potential spreading by wind and water erosion. Glyphosate and/or AMPA were present in 45% of the topsoils collected, originating from eleven countries and six crop systems, with a maximum concentration of 2mgkg(-1). Several glyphosate and AMPA hotspots were identified across the EU. Soil loss rates (obtained from recently derived European maps) were used to estimate the potential export of glyphosate and AMPA by wind and water erosion. The estimated exports, result of a conceptually simple model, clearly indicate that particulate transport can contribute to human and environmental exposure to herbicide residues. Residue threshold values in soils are urgently needed to define potential risks for soil health and off site effects related to export by wind and water erosion. FULL TEXT

Van Stempvoort et al., 2014

Van Stempvoort, D. R., Roy, J. W., Brown, S. J., & Bickerton, G.; “Residues of the herbicide glyphosate in riparian groundwater in urban catchments;” Chemosphere, 2014, 95, 455-463; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.09.095.


The herbicide glyphosate and its putative metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) have been found in urban streams, but limited information is available on their presence in urban riparian groundwater. Information is also lacking regarding the source of AMPA in these urban settings (glyphosate metabolite or wastewater), and whether, if present, glyphosate residues in urban riparian groundwater contribute significantly to urban streams. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected in shallow riparian groundwater at 4 of 5 stream sites in urban catchments in Canada and each were found in approximately 1 in 10 of the samples overall. Frequency of observations of glyphosate and AMPA varied substantially between sites, from no observations in a National Park near the Town of Jasper Alberta, to observations of both glyphosate and AMPA in more than half of the samples along two short reaches of streams in Burlington, Ontario. In these two catchments, AMPA was correlated with glyphosate, rather than the artificial sweetener acesulfame, suggesting that the AMPA is derived mainly from glyphosate degradation rather than from wastewater sources. Land use, localized dosage history, depth below ground and other factors likely control the occurrence of detectable glyphosate residues in groundwater. FULL TEXT

Aparicio et al., 2018

Aparicio, Virginia C., Aimar, Silvia, De Gerónimo, Eduardo, Mendez, Mariano J., & Costa, José L.; “Glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in wind-blown material under field conditions;” Land Degradation & Development, 2018, 29(5), 1317-1326; DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2920.


Agricultural intensification in fragile arid and semiarid environments has led to an increase in soil degradation, mainly through wind erosion. Argentina is an agricultural and cattle‐farming country, which has increased its productivity in the last few decades, widening the boundaries of farm land and the use of herbicides to control weeds. Glyphosate, which accounts for 65% of the Argentinian pesticides market, is strongly retained in soil. The World Health Organization concluded that there was evidence to classify glyphosate as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans.’ In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the presence and concentration of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in wind‐blown material in 3 areas in Argentine semiarid regions (Chaco, La Pampa, and San Luis). In 1‐ha2 plots, left uncovered and levelled, the wind‐blown material was collected at heights of 13.5, 50, and 150 cm during 18 erosion events. The wind‐blown material carried by the wind at a height of 150 cm had concentrations of 247 and 218 μgkg−1 of glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. This material was enriched 60 times in glyphosate and 3 times in AMPA as compared with the original soil. This shows that the eroded material can, potentially, have a negative impact on the ecosystem and also on human health, depending on the proportion of this material released into the atmosphere in suspension as particulate matter. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to report concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind‐blown material under field conditions. FULL TEXT

Mills et al., 2019

Mills, P. J., Caussy, C., & Loomba, R.; “Glyphosate Excretion is Associated With Steatohepatitis and Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Fatty Liver Disease;” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2019.03.045.


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in developed countries.(1) Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are considered to be at a higher risk of fibrosis progression and development to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Among potential environmental contributors to the pathophysiology of NAFLD are exposure to pesticides and herbicides. Glyphosate, the primary weed-killing ingredient in Roundup (Monsanto, St Louis, MO), is sprayed on genetically modified crops and on many non–genetically modified grain crops and is found in these crops at harvest.

Rodents chronically fed with a low dosage of glyphosate exhibit signs of hepatotoxicity, liver congestion, necrosis, and DNA damage of the liver cells. This study examined excretion levels of glyphosate and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in a well-characterized and prospectively recruited cohort of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. FULL TEXT

Cessna et al., 1994

Cessna, A. J., Darwent, A. L., Kirkland, K. J., Townley-Smith, L., Harker, K. N., & Lefkovitch, L. P.; “Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in wheat seed and foliage following preharvest applications;” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 1994, 74(3), 653-661; DOI: 10.4141/cjps94-117.


In a 2-yr study at four locations in western Canada, residues of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) were measured in the seed and foliage of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following preharvest applications at rates of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.7 kg acid equivalent ha−1. Herbicide treatments were applied in early August to mid-September at seed moisture contents ranging from 52 to 12%. Glyphosate and AMPA residues in the seed increased as the rate of application increased, and decreased as the seed moisture content at the time of application decreased. However, when the maximum application rate of 1.7 kg ha−1 was sprayed at seed moisture contents of 40% or less, glyphosate residues in the seed were < 5 mg kg−1, the Maximum Residue Level recently established by Health Canada. Glyphosate and AMPA residues in the straw also increased with increasing application rate, but there was no consistent pattern in residues of either chemical with seed moisture content at the time of application. Physiological maturity of the crop, rainfall washoff, and application rate appeared to play important roles in determining the magnitude of glyphosate and AMPA residues in the seed and straw of wheat. Key words: Glyphosate, AMPA, residues, wheat, seed, preharvest application. FULL TEXT

Cessna et al., 2002

Cessna, A. J., Darwent, A. L., Townley-Smith, L., Harker, K. N., & Kirkland, K.; “Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in field pea, barley and flax seed following preharvest applications;” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 2002, 82(2), 485-489; DOI: 10.4141/p01-094.


Maximum residue levels have been established by Health Canada for seed of several crops treated with preharvest applications of glyphosate, a common practice on the Canadian prairies. Residues of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were determined at crop maturity in flax seed at one site in western Canada and in the seed and straw of field pea and barley at another site following preharvest applications of the herbicide. Glyphosate was applied at rates of 0.45, 0.9 and 1.7 kg ha-1 to each crop in early August to mid-September at four stages of crop development. In all crops, mean residues of glyphosate and AMPA increased with increasing application rate of glyphosate and decreased when the herbicide was applied at later stages of crop development. FULL TEXT

Aris and Leblanc, 2011

Aris, Aziz, & Leblanc, Samuel; “Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada.;” Reproductive Toxicology, 2011, 31, 528-533; DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2011.02.004.


Pesticides associated to genetically modified foods (PAGMF), are engineered to tolerate herbicides such as glyphosate (GLYP) and gluphosinate (GLUF) or insecticides such as the bacterial toxin bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between maternal and fetal exposure, and to determine exposure levels of GLYP and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphoric acid (AMPA), GLUF and its metabolite 3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid (3-MPPA) and Cry1Ab protein (a Bt toxin) in Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada. Blood of thirty pregnant women (PW) and thirty-nine nonpregnant women (NPW) were studied. Serum GLYP and GLUF were detected in NPW and not detected in PW. Serum 3-MPPA and CryAb1 toxin were detected in PW, their fetuses and NPW. This is the first study to reveal the presence of circulating PAGMF in women with and without pregnancy, paving the way for a new field in reproductive toxicology including nutrition and utero-placental toxicities. FULL TEXT

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