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Bibliography Tag: atrazine

Zuanazzi et al., 2020

Zuanazzi, N. R., Ghisi, N. C., & Oliveira, E. C.; “Analysis of global trends and gaps for studies about 2,4-D herbicide toxicity: A scientometric review;” Chemosphere, 2020, 241, 125016; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125016.


2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a herbicide that is used worldwide in agricultural and urban activities to control pests, reaching natural environments directly or indirectly. The research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity has advanced rapidly, and for this reason, this review summarizes the available data in Web of Science (WoS) to provide insights into the specific characteristics of 2,4-D toxicity and mutagenicity. Contrary to traditional reviews, this study uses a new method to quantitatively visualize and summarize information about the development of this field. Among all countries, the USA was the most active contributor with the largest publication and centrality, followed by Canada and China. The WoS categories ‘Toxicology’ and ‘Biochemical and Molecular Biology’ were the areas of greatest influence. 2,4-D research was strongly related to the keywords glyphosate, atrazine, water and gene expression. The studies trended to be focused on occupational risk, neurotoxicity, resistance or tolerance to herbicides, and to non-target species (especially aquatic ones) and molecular imprinting. In general, the authors have worked collaboratively, with concentrated efforts, allowing important advances in this field. Future research on 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity should probably focus on molecular biology, especially gene expression, assessment of exposure in human or other vertebrate bioindicators, and pesticide degradation studies. In summary, this scientometric analysis allowed us to make inferences about global trends in 2,4-D toxicology and mutagenicity, in order to identify tendencies and gaps and thus contribute to future research efforts.


Wang et al., 2020

Wang, G. H., Berdy, B. M., Velasquez, O., Jovanovic, N., Alkhalifa, S., Minbiole, K. P. C., & Brucker, R. M.; “Changes in Microbiome Confer Multigenerational Host Resistance after Sub-toxic Pesticide Exposure;” Cell Host & Microbe, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.01.009.


The gut is a first point of contact with ingested xenobiotics, where chemicals are metabolized directly by the host or microbiota. Atrazine is a widely used pesticide, but the role of the microbiome metabolism of this xenobiotic and the impact on host responses is unclear. We exposed successive generations of the wasp Nasonia vitripennis to subtoxic levels of atrazine and observed changes in the structure and function of the gut microbiome that conveyed atrazine resistance. This microbiome-mediated resistance was maternally inherited and increased over successive generations, while also heightening the rate of host genome selection. The rare gut bacteria Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas protegens contributed to atrazine metabolism. Both of these bacteria contain genes that are linked to atrazine degradation and were sufficient to confer resistance in experimental wasp populations. Thus, pesticide exposure causes functional, inherited changes in the microbiome that should be considered when assessing xenobiotic exposure and as potential countermeasures to toxicity. FULL TEXT

Shergill et al., 2018

Shergill, Lovreet S., Barlow, Blake R., Bish, Mandy D., & Bradley, Kevin W., “Investigations of 2,4-D and Multiple Herbicide Resistance in a Missouri Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) Population,” Weed Science, 2018, 66(3), 386-394. DOI: 10.1017/wsc.2017.82.


Research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 to investigate the potential for 2,4-D and multiple herbicide resistance in a waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] population from Missouri (designated MO-Ren). In the field, visual control of the MO-Ren population with 0.56 to 4.48 kg 2,4-D ha−1 ranged from 26% to 77% in 2015 and from 15% to 55% in 2016. The MO-Ren population was highly resistant to chlorimuron, with visual control never exceeding 7% either year. Estimates of the 2,4-D dose required to provide 50% visual control (I50) of the MO-Ren population were 1.44 kg ha−1 compared with only 0.47 kg 2,4-D ha−1 for the susceptible population. Based on comparisons to a susceptible population in dose–response experiments, the MO-Ren population was approximately 3-fold resistant to 2,4-D, and 7-, 7-, 22-, and 14-fold resistant to atrazine, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, respectively. Dicamba and glufosinate were the only two herbicides that provided effective control of the MO-Ren population in these experiments. Examinations of multiple herbicide resistance at the individual plant level revealed that 16% of the plants of the MO-Ren population contained genes stacked for six-way herbicide resistance, and only 1% of plants were classified as resistant to a single herbicide (glyphosate). Results from these experiments confirm that the MO-Ren A. tuberculatus population is resistant to 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorimuron, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, making this population the third 2,4-D–resistant A. tuberculatus population identified in the United States, and the first population resistant to six different herbicidal modes of action.

Caballero et al., 2018

Caballero, M., Amiri, S., Denney, J. T., Monsivais, P., Hystad, P., & Amram, O., “Estimated Residential Exposure to Agricultural Chemicals and Premature Mortality by Parkinson’s Disease in Washington State,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2018, 15(12). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15122885.


The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between estimated residential exposure to agricultural chemical application and premature mortality from Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Washington State. Washington State mortality records for 2011(-)2015 were geocoded using residential addresses, and classified as having exposure to agricultural land-use within 1000 meters. Generalized linear models were used to explore the association between land-use associated with agricultural chemical application and premature mortality from PD. Individuals exposed to land-use associated with glyphosate had 33% higher odds of premature mortality than those that were not exposed (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 1.06(-)1.67). Exposure to cropland associated with all pesticide application (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.98(-)1.44) or Paraquat application (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.99(-)1.51) was not significantly associated with premature mortality from PD, but the effect size was in the hypothesized direction. No significant associations were observed between exposure to Atrazine (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.84(-)1.74) or Diazinon (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.85(-)1.34), and premature mortality from PD. The relationship between pesticide exposure and premature mortality aligns with previous biological, toxicological, and epidemiological findings. Glyphosate, the world’s most heavily applied herbicide, and an active ingredient in Roundup((R)) and Paraquat, a toxic herbicide, has shown to be associated with the odds of premature mortality from PD. FULL TEXT

Mattix et al., 2007

Mattix KD, Winchester PD, Scherer LR, “Incidence of abdominal wall defects is related to surface water atrazine and nitrate levels,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 2007, 42:6, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2007.01.027


BACKGROUND: Gastroschisis and omphalocele are congenital abdominal wall defects (AWD). Atrazine and nitrates are common agricultural fertilizers.

METHODS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention natality data set was used to collect data for patients with AWD born between January 1990 and December 2002. Similar data were obtained from the Indiana State Department of Health. An estimated date of conception was calculated by birth date and gestational age. Surface water nitrate and atrazine levels for Indiana were collected from US Geological Survey data. Midwest was defined as Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Nebraska. Statistical analysis was performed by chi2 test and Pearson correlation for P < or = .05.

RESULTS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 9871 children with AWD in 1990 and in 1995-2001 of 35,876,519 live births (rate 2.75/10(5)). In Indiana, 358 children from 1990-2001 had AWD of 1,013,286 live births (rate 3.53/10(5)). The AWD rate in Indiana was significantly higher than the national rate in 1996 (P = .0377), 1998 (P = .0005), and 2001 (P = .0365) and significantly higher than the Midwest rate in 1998 (P = .0104). Monthly comparison demonstrated a positive correlation of AWD rate and mean atrazine levels (P = .0125).

CONCLUSION: Indiana has significantly higher rates of AWD compared with national rates. Increased atrazine levels correlate with increased incidence of AWD.


Nowell et al., 2018

Nowell Lisa H., Moran Patrick W., Schmidt Travis S., Norman Julia E., Nakagaki Naomi, Shoda Megan E., Mahler Barbara J., Van Metre Peter C., Stone Wesley W., Sandstrom Mark W., Hladik Michelle L., “Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams,” Science of the Total Environment, 613-614, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.156


Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most complex pesticide mixtures yet reported in discrete water samples in the U.S. and, using multiple lines of evidence, predicts that pesticides were potentially toxic to nontarget aquatic life in about half of the sampled streams.  FULL TEXT

Lerro et al., 2017

Catherine C. Lerro, Laura E. Beane Freeman, Lützen Portengen, Daehee Kang, Kyoungho Lee, Aaron Blair, Charles F. Lynch, Berit Bakke, Anneclaire J. De Roos, and Roel C.H. Vermeulen, “A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among Iowa corn farmers,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2017, 58, DOI: 10.1002/em.22069


Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism’s antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress. 225 urine samples were collected during five agricultural time periods (pre-planting, planting, growing, harvest, off-season) for 30 farmers who applied pesticides occupationally and 10 controls who did not; all were non-smoking men ages 40–60. Atrazine mercapturate (atrazine metabolite), 2,4-D, and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and 8-isoprostaglandin-F [8-isoPGF]) were measured in urine. We calculated β estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each pesticide-oxidative stress marker combination using multivariate linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. Farmers had higher urinary atrazine mercapturate and 2,4-D levels compared to controls. In regression models, after natural log transformation, 2,4-D was associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG (β=0.066, 95%CI=0.008–0.124) and 8-isoPGF (β=0.088, 95%CI=0.004–0.172). 2,4-D may be associated with oxidative stress because of modest increases in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and 8-isoPGF, a product of lipoprotein peroxidation, with recent 2,4-D exposure. Future studies should investigate the role of 2,4-D-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human diseases.  FULL TEXT

Winston et al., 2016

Jennifer J. Winston, Michael Emch, Robert E. Meyer, Peter Langlois, Peter Weyer, Bridget Mosley, Andrew F. Olshan, Lawrence E. Band, Thomas J. Luben and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, “Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study,” Environmental Health, 15:76, DOI: 10.1186/s12940-016-0161-9


BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development.

METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the etiology of 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias. We used data on 343 hypospadias cases and 1,422 male controls in North Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa, and Texas from 1998–2005. Using catchment level stream and groundwater contaminant models from the US Geological Survey, we estimated atrazine concentrations in public water supplies and in private wells. We assigned case and control mothers to public water supplies based on geocoded maternal address during the critical window of exposure for hypospadias (i.e., gestational weeks 6–16). Using maternal questionnaire data about water consumption and drinking water, we estimated a surrogate for total maternal consumption of atrazine via drinking water. We then included additional maternal covariates, including age, race/ethnicity, parity, and plurality, in logistic regression analyses to consider an association between atrazine and hypospadias.

RESULTS: When controlling for maternal characteristics, any association between hypospadias and daily maternal atrazine exposure during the critical window of genitourinary development was found to be weak or null (odds ratio for atrazine in drinking water = 1. 00, 95 % CI = 0.97 to 1.03 per 0.04 μg/day increase; odds ratio for maternal consumption = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.99 to 1.05; per 0.05 μg/day increase).

CONCLUSIONS: While the association that we observed was weak, our results suggest that additional research into a possible association between atrazine and hypospadias occurrence, using a more sensitive exposure metric, would be useful.  FULL TEXT

Lebov et al., 2016

Jill F. Lebov, MSPH, PhD, Lawrence S. Engel, PhD, David Richardson, PhD, Susan L. Hogan, PhD, Jane A. Hoppin, ScD, and Dale P. Sandler, PhD, “Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2016, 7, DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102615


OBJECTIVES: Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina.

METHODS: Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization.

RESULTS: Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. FULL TEXT

Agopian et al., 2013a

A.J. Agopian, PhD, Yi Cai, MS, Peter H. Langlois, PhD, Mark A. Canfield, PhD, and Philip J. Lupo, PhD, “Maternal Residential Atrazine Exposure and Risk for Choanal Atresia and Stenosis in Offspring,” Journal of Pediatrics 2013, 162:3, DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.012


OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between estimated residential maternal exposure to atrazine during pregnancy and the risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring.

STUDY DESIGN: Data for 280 nonsyndromic cases and randomly selected, population-based controls delivered between 1999 and 2008 were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry. County-level estimates of atrazine levels obtained from the US Geological Survey were assigned to cases and controls based on maternal county of residence at delivery. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between maternal residential atrazine exposure and the risk for choanal atresia or stenosis in offspring.

RESULTS: Compared with offspring of mothers with low levels of estimated residential atrazine exposure, those with high levels had nearly a 2-fold increase in risk for choanal atresia or stenosis (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.17-2.74). A significant linear trend was also observed with increasing levels of atrazine exposure (adjusted P = .002).

CONCLUSION: A link between maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as atrazine, and the risk of choanal atresia is plausible based on previous findings. Our results lend further support to this hypothesis.  FULL TEXT

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