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Bibliography Tag: dicamba part i

DuPont, 2015

DuPont, FeXapan Herbicide Label, July 23, 2015, EPA Registration Number 352-913.


First label for BASF FeXapan Herbicide containing DGA dicamba and inert ingredients intended to reduce volatility and drift.  FULL TEXT

USDA, 2014

United States Department of Agriculture, “Monsanto Petitions (10-188-01p and 12-185-01p) for Determinations of  Nonregulated Status for Dicamba-Resistant Soybean and Cotton Varieties: Final Environmental Impact Statement,”
December 2014.


The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) received two requests (petitions) from Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (Monsanto) seeking determinations of nonregulated status for genetically engineered (GE) plant varieties referred to as MON 87708 soybean and MON 88701 cotton, that have been engineered to be resistant to the herbicide dicamba (Monsanto, 2012b; 2012a). These GE plant varieties are currently regulated by APHIS, and Monsanto requests that APHIS grant the petitions (Petition 10-188-01p for MON 87708 soybean and Petition 12-185-01p for MON 88701 cotton), so that these varieties can be grown without any APHIS regulatory oversight. Since these two GE plant varieties are currently under APHIS regulatory oversight, the Agency requires
Monsanto to comply with a full range of safeguarding measures to ensure that these regulated GE plant varieties do not transfer or spread from their APHIS-approved outdoor planting sites. APHIS authorization is also required to move these regulated varieties interstate. Once a developer of a GE plant has obtained sufficient information to conclude that its regulated GE plant is unlikely to cause injury, damage, or disease to plants or plant products (i.e., pose a plant pest risk), it may submit a petition to APHIS to no longer regulate the organism. This is referred to as seeking nonregulated status. If a petition for nonregulated status is approved by APHIS, permits or notifications are no longer required by the Agency to grow or ship the GE plant throughout the United States and its territories. If APHIS determines that nonregulated status is appropriate for one or both the Monsanto GE varieties, they will no longer be subject to any regulations pursuant to  Part 340.  FULL TEXT

Monsanto, 2005b

Monsanto, “Monsanto, UNL Sign Agreement to Develop Dicamba-Tolerant Crops,” Monsanto Press Release, March 23, 2005.


Monsanto press release announcing agreement with University of Nebraska-Lincoln to develop dicamba-resistant crops.  FULL TEXT

Monsanto, 2016a

Monsanto, Monsanto Meeting Whistle Stop Tour – Day 1, Monsanto Official Transcript, August 17, 2016.


Detailed transcript of Monsanto investor meeting in August 2016 where dicamba and glyphosate investments and projections were discussed.  FULL TEXT

BASF, 2016a

BASF, Engenia Herbicide Label, December 20, 2016, EPA Registration Number: 7969-345.


EPA label for Engenia Herbicide for dicamba-resistant crops. FULL TEXT

Monsanto, 2016b

Monsanto, XtendiMax With VaporGrip Technology Herbicide Label, November 9, 2016, EPA Registration Number 524-617.


Label for XtendiMax with VaporGrip Herbicide for use with dicamba-tolerant crops.  FULL TEXT

Kaskey and Mulvany, 2016a

Jack Kaskey and Lydia Mulvany, “Monsanto Seeds Unleash Unintended Consequences Across U.S. Farms,” Bloomberg, September 1, 2016.


Reports on dicamba damage in 2016 after Monsanto allows sales of dicamba-resistant crops even though the EPA had not yet approved the new dicamba formulations meant for use with the new GE seeds. Farmers tell Bloomberg they feel “compelled to buy the engineered Monsanto seed to avoid injury next season.”  FULL TEXT

Barber, 2017

Tom Barber, “Dicamba Drift and Potential Effects on Soybean Yield,” AGWatch Network, July 7, 2016.


Tom Barber, an Extension Weed Scientist at the University of Arkansas, posts a chilling overview of what he has observed in soybean fields in several parts of the state. His piece “Dicamba Drift and Potential Effects on Soybean Yield” contains an ominous warning – “We have observed a 10% [soybean] yield loss from dicamba at rates as low as 1/1024X of the labeled rate” – a very low level of drift and/or movement following volatilization.  Barber also warns that low rates of dicamba drift/movement onto soybeans, especially later in the crop’s growth cycle (i.e. R3-R5) can result in carryover of dicamba in the seed…triggering problems if the soybeans are used for seed in the next year and increasing dietary exposure levels.  FULL TEXT

Gillam, 2015

Carey Gillam, “Monsanto to invest more than $1bln in dicamba herbicide production,” Reuters, June 24, 2015.


Reports on Monsanto plans to invest heavily in dicamba production in preparation for the launch of dicamba-resistant crops.  A major plant expansion underway in Luling, Louisiana to meet rising demand for dicamba and Monsanto tells Reuters it sees “a 200 million acre ‘practical fit’ for its Roundup Ready Xtend system for soybeans and cotton in the Americas.” FULL TEXT

Behrens et al., 2007

Mark Behrens, Nedim Mutlu, Sarbani Chakraborty, Razvan Dumitru, Wen Zhi Jiang, “Dicamba Resistance: Enlarging and Preserving Biotechnology-Based Weed Management Strategies,” Science, 316, 2007, DOI: 10.1126/science.1141596.


Abstract: The advent of biotechnology-derived, herbicide-resistant crops has revolutionized farming practices in many countries. Facile, highly effective, environmentally sound, and profitable weed control methods have been rapidly adopted by crop producers who value the benefits associated with biotechnology-derived weed management traits. But a rapid rise in the populations of several troublesome weeds that are tolerant or resistant to herbicides currently used in conjunction with herbicide-resistant crops may signify that the useful lifetime of these economically important weed management traits will be cut short. We describe the development of soybean and other broadleaf plant species resistant to dicamba, a widely used, inexpensive, and environmentally safe herbicide. The dicamba resistance technology will augment current herbicide resistance technologies and extend their effective lifetime. Attributes of both nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded dicamba resistance genes that affect the potency and expected durability of the herbicide resistance trait are  examined.  FULL TEXT

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