Bibliography Tag: dietary risk

Potera, 2015

Potera, C.; “Tracking organophosphates: new method for assessing long-term dietary exposures;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2015, 123(5), A135; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.123-A135.


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Suppa et al., 2020

Suppa, A., Kvist, J., Li, X., Dhandapani, V., Almulla, H., Tian, A. Y., Kissane, S., Zhou, J., Perotti, A., Mangelson, H., Langford, K., Rossi, V., Brown, J. B., & Orsini, L.; “Roundup causes embryonic development failure and alters metabolic pathways and gut microbiota functionality in non-target species;” Microbiome, 2020, 8(1), 170; DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00943-5.


BACKGROUND: Research around the weedkiller Roundup is among the most contentious of the twenty-first century. Scientists have provided inconclusive evidence that the weedkiller causes cancer and other life-threatening diseases, while industry-paid research reports that the weedkiller has no adverse effect on humans or animals. Much of the controversial evidence on Roundup is rooted in the approach used to determine safe use of chemicals, defined by outdated toxicity tests. We apply a system biology approach to the biomedical and ecological model species Daphnia to quantify the impact of glyphosate and of its commercial formula, Roundup, on fitness, genome-wide transcription and gut microbiota, taking full advantage of clonal reproduction in Daphnia. We then apply machine learning-based statistical analysis to identify and prioritize correlations between genome-wide transcriptional and microbiota changes.

RESULTS: We demonstrate that chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of glyphosate and Roundup at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water in the US induce embryonic developmental failure, induce significant DNA damage (genotoxicity), and interfere with signaling. Furthermore, chronic exposure to the weedkiller alters the gut microbiota functionality and composition interfering with carbon and fat metabolism, as well as homeostasis. Using the “Reactome,” we identify conserved pathways across the Tree of Life, which are potential targets for Roundup in other species, including liver metabolism, inflammation pathways, and collagen degradation, responsible for the repair of wounds and tissue remodeling.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that chronic exposure to concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate at the approved regulatory threshold for drinking water causes embryonic development failure and alteration of key metabolic functions via direct effect on the host molecular processes and indirect effect on the gut microbiota. The ecological model species Daphnia occupies a central position in the food web of aquatic ecosystems, being the preferred food of small vertebrates and invertebrates as well as a grazer of algae and bacteria. The impact of the weedkiller on this keystone species has cascading effects on aquatic food webs, affecting their ability to deliver critical ecosystem services. FULL TEXT

Masood et al., 2021

Masood, M. I., Naseem, M., Warda, S. A., Tapia-Laliena, M. A., Rehman, H. U., Nasim, M. J., & Schafer, K. H.; “Environment permissible concentrations of glyphosate in drinking water can influence the fate of neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of the postnatal mouse;” Environmental Pollution, 2021, 270, 116179; DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116179.


The developing nervous system is highly vulnerable to environmental toxicants especially pesticides. Glyphosate pesticide induces neurotoxicity both in humans and rodents, but so far only when exposed to higher concentrations. A few studies, however, have also reported the risk of general toxicity of glyphosate at concentrations comparable to allowable limits set up by environmental protection authorities. In vitro data regarding glyphosate neurotoxicity at concentrations comparable to maximum permissible concentrations in drinking water is lacking. In the present study, we established an in vitro assay based upon neural stem cells (NSCs) from the subventricular zone of the postnatal mouse to decipher the effects of two maximum permissible concentrations of glyphosate in drinking water on the basic neurogenesis processes. Our results demonstrated that maximum permissible concentrations of glyphosate recognized by environmental protection authorities significantly reduced the cell migration and differentiation of NSCs as demonstrated by the downregulation of the expression levels of the neuronal ss-tubulin III and the astrocytic S100B genes. The expression of the cytoprotective gene CYP1A1 was downregulated whilst the expression of oxidative stresses indicator gene SOD1 was upregulated. The concentration comparable to non-toxic human plasma concentration significantly induced cytotoxicity and activated Ca(2+) signalling in the differentiated culture. Our findings demonstrated that the permissible concentrations of glyphosate in drinking water recognized by environmental protection authorities are capable of inducing neurotoxicity in the developing nervous system. FULL TEXT

Guan et al., 2021

Guan, J., Yang, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Deng, H., Xu, J., Wang, J., & Yuan, M. S.; “Employing a fluorescent and colorimetric picolyl-functionalized rhodamine for the detection of glyphosate pesticide;” Talanta, 2021, 224, 121834; DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121834.


The ongoing poisoning of agricultural products has pushed the security problem to become an important issue. Among them, exceeding the standard rate of pesticide residues is the main factor influencing the quality and security of agricultural products. Monitoring pesticide residues and developing simple, yet ultrasensitive detection systems for pesticide residues are urgently needed. In this study, we successfully developed a novel rhodamine derivative as fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor R-G for the rapid, selective and ultrasensitive detection of glyphosate pesticide residue in aqueous solution. Through a Cu(2+)-indicator displacement strategy, glyphosate can displace an indicator (R-G) from a Cu(2+)-indicator complex due to its strong affinity to bind with Cu(2+) to give a turn-on fluorescence and distinct color change. Moreover, a test strip was also fabricated to achieve a facile detection of glyphosate pesticide. To demonstrate the possibility of practical applications, glyphosate was detected on the surface of cabbage and in a spiked soil sample. The detection limit of 4.1 nM and the response time of 2 min indicate that the method is enough sensitive and rapid to detect the glyphosate residue at or below levels that pose a health risk. FULL TEXT

Benbrook and Davis, 2020

Benbrook, Charles M., & Davis, Donald R.; “The dietary risk index system: a tool to track pesticide dietary risks;” Environmental Health, 2020, 19(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12940-020-00657-z.


BACKGROUND: For years the United States Department of Agriculture’s Pesticide Data Program and the United Kingdom’s Food Standards Agency have published annual or quarterly data on pesticide residues in foods. Both programs report residues in conventionally grown, organic, and imported foods. The US program has tested about 288,000 food samples since 1992, primarily fruits and vegetables consumed by children. Since 1999 the UK has tested about 72,000 samples of a wider range of foods. These data are vital inputs in tracking trends in pesticide dietary risks.

METHODS: The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system facilitates detailed analyses of US and UK pesticide residue data, trends, and chronic risk distributions. The DRI value for a pesticide is the dietary intake of that pesticide from a single serving of food divided by the pesticide’s acceptable daily intake as set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. It can be calculated based on average annual residue concentrations, and on residue levels in individual samples of food. DRI values can be aggregated over multiple pesticides in single foods, and over individual pesticides in multiple foods.

RESULTS: The DRI system provides insights into the levels, trends, and distribution of pesticide dietary risk across most widely consumed foods. By drawing on both US Pesticide Data Program and UK-Food Standards Agency residue data, the DRI is capable of assessing pesticide risks in a significant portion of the global food supply. Substantial reductions in pesticide dietary risks occurred in the early 2000s, primarily from replacement of organophosphate insecticides with seemingly lower-risk neonicotinoids. However, there remain several areas of concern and opportunities to reduce risks. Both herbicide and fungicide dietary risks are rising. Organically grown produce poses risks far lower than corresponding, conventionally grown produce. Risk differences are inconsistent between domestic and imported foods.

CONCLUSTIONS: The surest ways to markedly reduce pesticide dietary risks are to shift relatively high-risk fruits and vegetables to organic production. For other foods, reducing reliance on pesticides overall, and especially high-risk pesticides, will incrementally lower risks. The DRI system can help focus such efforts and track progress in reducing pesticide dietary risk. FULL TEXT

Szekacs et al., 2018

Székács, András, Wilkinson, Martin G., Mader, Anneluise, & Appel, Bernd; “Environmental and food safety of spices and herbs along global food chains;” Food Control, 2018, 83, 1-6; DOI: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.06.033.


Spices and herbs, which are consumed in small quantities, but used in a wide range of foods and food products, represent a unique segment within the food sector. Moreover, being distributed as mostly in their dried, low water activity formats and associated with very complex distribution product chains, specific concerns as regards food safety apply to these particular commodities. To promote the capability of the food sector and the society to detect, respond to and prevent bio-threats, data generated from the EU FP7 project “Securing the spices and herbs commodity chains in Europe against deliberate, accidental or natural biological and chemical contamination” (SPICED) are presented thematically including: general considerations, issues of sampling, chemical and microbial contamination, and food chain and societal aspects. FULL TEXT

Arregui et al., 2004

Arregui, M. C., Lenardon, A., Sanchez, D., Maitre, M. I., Scotta, R., & Enrique, S.; “Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean;” Pest Management Science, 2004, 60(2), 163-166; DOI: 10.1002/ps.775.


The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

Kougias et al., 2020

Kougias, D. G., Miller, E., McEwen, A., Reamer, H., Kovochich, M., & Pierce, J.; “Risk Assessment of Glyphosate Exposures from Pilot Study with Simulated Heavy Residential Consumer Application of Roundup((R)) using a Margin of Safety (MOS) Approach;” Risk Analysis, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/risa.13646.


Due to the widespread application of glyphosate, a nonselective herbicide, to a variety of resistant food crops, the general population is exposed to glyphosate through dietary intake. Despite this, dietary exposures to glyphosate are considered low in comparison to application-related exposures. Although previous studies have evaluated exposure to horticultural and agricultural workers, to date only one study, which we recently conducted, has characterized exposure to glyphosate in consumers following heavy residential application of a glyphosate-containing herbicide in a residential yard and garden setting. In this previous study, we demonstrated that urinary glyphosate concentrations in these applicators were similar to or in some circumstances greater than those in occupational applicators, likely due to the nature of the simulation study, which ensured a heavy application protocol. However, it is unknown whether these urinary glyphosate concentrations in consumer applicators correspond to internal doses that may be of concern. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive risk assessment of glyphosate exposure in consumer applicators using a margin of safety approach. Here, we incorporated data collected from multiple spot urine samples across time from our previous study that assessed consumer exposure to glyphosate from Roundup((R)) application. Estimated internal doses, even with the use of conservative assumptions across unique approaches, were below internal doses estimated from established health-based guidance values. Overall, this study demonstrates that glyphosate exposure from even heavy consumer application of a commercially available glyphosate-containing herbicide does not appear to be a health concern. FULL TEXT

Reeves et al., 2019

Reeves, W. R., McGuire, M. K., Stokes, M., & Vicini, J. L.; “Assessing the Safety of Pesticides in Food: How Current Regulations Protect Human Health;” Advances in Nutrition, 2019, 10(1), 80-88; DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmy061.


Understanding the magnitude and impact of dietary pesticide exposures is a concern for some consumers. However, the ability of consumers to obtain and understand state-of-the-science information about how pesticides are regulated and how dietary exposure limits are set can be limited by the complicated nature of the regulations coupled with an abundance of sources seeking to cast doubt on the reliability of those regulations. Indeed, these regulations are sometimes not well understood within health care professions. As such, the objective of this review is to provide a historical perspective as to how modern pesticides were developed, current trends in pesticide use and regulation, and measures taken to reduce the risk of pesticide use to the consumer. Throughout the review, we provide specific examples for some of the concepts as they apply to glyphosate-a pesticide commonly used by both farmers and consumers. In addition, we describe current efforts to monitor pesticide use. We are confident that this succinct, yet thorough, review of this topic will be of interest to myriad researchers, public health experts, and health practitioners as they help communicate information about making healthful and sustainable food choices to the public. FULL TEXT

Berkowitz et al., 2004

Berkowitz, G. S., Wetmur, J. G., Birman-Deych, E., Obel, J., Lapinski, R. H., Godbold, J. H., Holzman, I. R., & Wolff, M. S.; “In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2004, 112(3), 388-391; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.6414.


Although the use of pesticides in inner-city homes of the United States is of considerable magnitude, little is known about the potentially adverse health effects of such exposure. Recent animal data suggest that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and early life may impair growth and neurodevelopment in the offspring. To investigate the relationship among prenatal pesticide exposure, paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and enzyme activity, and infant growth and neurodevelopment, we are conducting a prospective, multiethnic cohort study of mothers and infants delivered at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City. In this report we evaluate the effects of pesticide exposure on birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age among 404 births between May 1998 and May 2002. Pesticide exposure was assessed by a prenatal questionnaire administered to the mothers during the early third trimester as well as by analysis of maternal urinary pentachlorophenol levels and maternal metabolites of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. Neither the questionnaire data nor the pesticide metabolite levels were associated with any of the fetal growth indices or gestational age. However, when the level of maternal PON1 activity was taken into account, maternal levels of chlorpyrifos above the limit of detection coupled with low maternal PON1 activity were associated with a significant but small reduction in head circumference. In addition, maternal PON1 levels alone, but not PON1 genetic polymorphisms, were associated with reduced head size. Because small head size has been found to be predictive of subsequent cognitive ability, these data suggest that chlorpyrifos may have a detrimental effect on fetal neurodevelopment among mothers who exhibit low PON1 activity. FULL TEXT