Bibliography Tag: dietary risk

Benbrook, 2022a

Benbrook, Charles; “Tracking pesticide residues and risk levels in individual samples—insights and applications;” Environmental Sciences Europe, 2022, 34(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12302-022-00636-w.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: A method is now available to quantify the number of pesticide residues and relative pesticide dietary risks in individual servings of food. The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system combines the results of United States and United Kingdom pesticide residue testing programs with data on food serving sizes and each pesticide’s chronic Reference Dose or Acceptable Daily Intake. Chronic DRI values are a ratio: the amount of residue in a serving of food relative to the maximum amount allowed by regulators.

RESULTS: The DRI system generates individual sample tables reporting the number of residues detected and individual pesticide and aggregate-pesticide DRI values in specific, individual samples of food. It is the first such system to do so worldwide. Output tables produce accurate estimates of real-world dietary risks based on current toxicology data and exposure benchmarks set by regulators. System outputs allow assessment of the distribution of pesticide dietary risks across foods and pesticides and demonstrate that dietary risk levels are highly skewed. A large number of samples pose moderate, low, or very-low risks, and relatively few samples pose high or very-high risks.

CONCLUSIONS: The DRI system provides the food industry, regulators and analysts with a simple, accessible online tool to assess pesticide dietary-risk levels by food, by pesticide, as a function of country of origin, and on food grown on conventional versus organic farms. DRI system output tables show that the number of residues in a sample of food is a consistently poor indicator of dietary risk levels. By identifying the relatively small number of high-risk samples, efforts to mitigate pesticide dietary risks can be targeted where the most worrisome risks are.

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Hood et al., 2022

Hood, R. B., Liang, D., Chiu, Y. H., Sandoval-Insausti, H., Chavarro, J. E., Jones, D., Hauser, R., & Gaskins, A. J.; “Pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables and alterations in the serum metabolome of women undergoing infertility treatment;” Environment International, 2022, 160, 107061; DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.107061.

ABSTACT:

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure is linked to a myriad of negative health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are less clear. We utilized metabolomics to describe the alterations in the serum metabolome associated with high and low pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables (FVs), the most common route of exposure in humans.

METHODS: This analysis included 171 women undergoing in vitro fertilization who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire and provided a serum sample during controlled ovarian stimulation (2007–2015). FVs were categorized as high or low-to-moderate pesticide residue using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the USDA. We conducted untargeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry and two chromatography columns. We used multivariable generalized linear models to identified metabolic features (p < 0.005) associated with high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake, followed by enriched pathway analysis.

RESULTS: We identified 50 and 109 significant features associated with high pesticide residue FV intake in the C18 negative and HILIC positive columns, respectively. Additionally, we identified 90 and 62 significant features associated with low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake in the two columns, respectively. Four metabolomic pathways were associated with intake of high pesticide residue FVs including those involved in energy, vitamin, and enzyme metabolism. 12 pathways were associated with intake of low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs including cellular receptor, energy, intercellular signaling, lipid, vitamin, and xenobiotic metabolism. One energy pathway was associated with both high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified limited overlap in the pathways associated with intake of high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs, which supports findings of disparate health effects associated with these two exposures. The identified pathways suggest there is a balance between the dietary antioxidant intake associated with FVs intake and heightened oxidative stress as a result of dietary pesticide exposure.

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Rempelos et al., 2022

Rempelos L, Wang J, Barański M, Watson A, Volakakis N, Hoppe HW, Kühn-Velten WN, Hadall C, Hasanaliyeva G, Chatzidimitriou E, Magistrali A, Davis H, Vigar V, Średnicka-Tober D, Rushton S, Iversen PO, Seal CJ, Leifert C.; “Diet and food type affect urinary pesticide residue excretion profiles in healthy individuals: results of a randomized controlled dietary intervention trial;” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2022, 9;115(2),364-377; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab308.

ABSTRACT:

Background

Observational studies have linked pesticide exposure to various diseases, whereas organic food consumption has been associated with positive health outcomes. Organic farming standards prohibit the use of most pesticides, and organic food consumption may therefore reduce pesticide exposure.

Objectives

To determine the effects of diet (Western compared with Mediterranean) and food type (conventional compared with organic) and sex on urinary pesticide residue excretion (UPRE), as well as associations between specific diet components and UPRE.

Methods

In this 2-wk, randomized dietary intervention trial, healthy adults were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 13) or conventional (n = 14) group. Whereas participants in the intervention group consumed a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) made entirely from organic foods, the conventional group consumed a MedDiet made entirely from conventional foods. Both groups consumed habitual Western diets made from conventional foods before and after the 2-wk intervention period. The primary outcome was UPRE. In addition, we assessed diet composition and pesticide residue profiles in foods eaten. Participants were aware of group assignment, but the study assessors were not.

Results

During the intervention period, total UPRE was 91% lower with organic (mean 17 μg/d; 95% CI: 15, 19) than with conventional (mean 180 μg/d; 95% CI: 153, 208) food consumption (P < 0.0001). In the conventional group, switching from the habitual Western diet to the MedDiet increased insecticide excretion from 7 to 25 μg/d (P < 0.0001), organophosphate excretion from 5 to 19 μg/d (P < 0.0001), and pyrethroid residue excretion from 2.0 to 4.5 μg/d (P < 0.0001). Small but significant effects of sex were detected for chlormequat, herbicide, and total pesticide residue excretion.

Conclusions

Changing from a habitual Western diet to a MedDiet was associated with increased insecticide, organophosphate, and pyrethroid exposure, whereas organic food consumption reduced exposure to all groups of synthetic chemical pesticides. This may explain the positive health outcomes linked to organic food consumption in observational studies.

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Schütze et al. 2021

Andre Schütze, Pilar Morales-Agudelo, Meghan Vidal, Antonia M. Calafat, Maria Ospina.; “Quantification of glyphosate and other organophosphorus compounds in human urine via ion chromatography isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry;” Chemosphere, 2021, 274; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129427.

ABSTRACT:

Organophosphorus pesticides are the most used pesticides in the United States. Most organophosphorus pesticides are composed of a phosphate (or phosphorothioate or phosphorodithioate) moiety and a variable organic group. Organophosphorus pesticides are scrutinized by regulatory bodies and agencies because of their toxicity or suspected carcinogenicity. Upon exposure, organophosphorus pesticides and their metabolites eliminate in urine; these urinary biomarkers are useful to evaluate human exposure. We developed a method using stable isotope dilution, ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for quantification in urine of 6 O,O-dialkylphosphates, metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides, and glyphosate, the most used herbicide in the United States. With simple and minimal sample preparation, the analytical method is selective and sensitive (limits of detection are 0.2-0.8 μg/L), accurate (>85%) and precise (relative standard deviation <20%), depending on the analyte. To assess the suitability of the method in real exposure scenarios, we analyzed samples collected anonymously from subjects with suspected exposure to pesticides (n = 40) or who had been on an organic diet (n = 50). We detected glyphosate in 80% of subjects reporting an organic diet and in 78% of those with suspected glyphosate exposure; concentrations ranged from <0.2 to 28.6 μg/L. Median concentrations were 0.39 μg/L for the organic diet group and 0.40 μg/L for individuals with suspected exposure. Interestingly, interquartile ranges were considerably higher among those reporting pesticide exposure (0.63 μg/L) than those consuming organic diets (0.42 μg/L). These data suggest that the method meets typical validation benchmark values and is sensitive to investigate background exposures in the general population. FULL TEXT


Lopez-Yañez Blanco et al., 2022

Lopez-Yañez Blanco A, Díaz-López KM, Vilchis-Gil J, Diaz-Garcia H, Gomez-Lopez J, Medina-Bravo P, Granados-Riveron JT, Gallardo JM, Klünder-Klünder M, Sánchez-Urbina R.; “Diet and Maternal Obesity Are Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress in Newborns: A Cross-Sectional Study.” Nutrients, 2022; 14(4):746; DOI:10.3390/nu14040746.

ABSTRACT:

Overweight and obesity have become a world-health public problem, mainly for developing countries. Both health conditions have a higher prevalence among women of childbearing age. Physiopathology, overweight and obesity are characterized by a chronic oxidative stress status, which has deleterious effects on mothers and children. Hence, we determine whether the qualities of diet during pregnancy and maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased oxidative stress markers in mothers and newborns. Two hundred forty-two (242) mother-newborn pairs were classified according to their pregestational BMI. Information on food intake was collected using a food frequency questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy. Levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric Oxide (NO) were measured in plasma from mothers at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy and from cord blood at birth. MDA and NO levels in mother–newborn pairs with maternal pregestational overweight or obesity were higher than in mother–newborn pairs with pregestational normal weight. For women (and newborns) who had a higher intake of fruit and vegetables, the levels of NO and MDA were lower. Lastly, women with pregestational obesity had lower fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and higher levels of oxidative stress and in their newborns. FULL TEXT


Bajwa & Sandhu, 2014

Bajwa, U., & Sandhu, K. S.; “Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review;” Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 51(2), 201-220; DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0499-5.

ABSTRACT:

Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article.

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Benbrook et al., 2021a

Benbrook, Charles, Perry, Melissa J., Belpoggi, Fiorella, Landrigan, Philip J., Perro, Michelle, Mandrioli, Daniele, Antoniou, Michael N., Winchester, Paul, & Mesnage, Robin; “Commentary: Novel strategies and new tools to curtail the health effects of pesticides;” Environmental Health, 2021, 20(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12940-021-00773-4.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Flaws in the science supporting pesticide risk assessment and regulation stand in the way of progress in mitigating the human health impacts of pesticides. Critical problems include the scope of regulatory testing protocols, the near-total focus on pure active ingredients rather than formulated products, lack of publicly accessible information on co-formulants, excessive reliance on industry-supported studies coupled with reticence to incorporate published results in the risk assessment process, and failure to take advantage of new scientific opportunities and advances, e.g. biomonitoring and “omics” technologies.
RECOMMENDED ACTIONS: Problems in pesticide risk assessment are identified and linked to study design, data, and methodological shortcomings. Steps and strategies are presented that have potential to deepen scientific knowledge of pesticide toxicity, exposures, and risks.
We propose four solutions:
(1) End near-sole reliance in regulatory decision-making on industry-supported studies by supporting and relying more heavily on independent science, especially for core toxicology studies. The cost of conducting core toxicology studies at labs not affiliated with or funded directly by pesticide registrants should be covered via fees paid by manufacturers to public agencies.
(2) Regulators should place more weight on mechanistic data and low-dose studies within the range of contemporary exposures.
(3) Regulators, public health agencies, and funders should increase the share of exposure-assessment resources that produce direct measures of concentrations in bodily fluids and tissues. Human biomonitoring is vital in order to quickly identify rising exposures among vulnerable populations including applicators, pregnant women, and children.
(4) Scientific tools across disciplines can accelerate progress in risk assessments if integrated more effectively. New genetic and metabolomic markers of adverse health impacts and heritable epigenetic impacts are emerging and should be included more routinely in risk assessment to effectively prevent disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Preventing adverse public health outcomes triggered or made worse by exposure to pesticides will require changes in policy and risk assessment procedures, more science free of industry influence, and innovative strategies that blend traditional methods with new tools and mechanistic insights.

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Benbrook et al., 2021

Benbrook, Charles, Kegley, Susan, & Baker, Brian; “Organic Farming Lessens Reliance on Pesticides and Promotes Public Health by Lowering Dietary Risks;” Agronomy, 2021, 11(7); DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11071266.

ABSTRACT:

Organic agriculture is a production system that relies on prevention, ecological processes, biodiversity, mechanical processes, and natural cycles to control pests and maintain productivity. Pesticide use is generally limited or absent in organic agroecosystems, in contrast with non-organic (conventional) production systems that primarily rely on pesticides for crop protection. Significant differences in pesticide use between the two production systems markedly alter the relative dietary exposure and risk levels and the environmental impacts of pesticides. Data are presented on pesticide use on organic and non-organic farms for all crops and selected horticultural crops. The relative dietary risks that are posed by organic and non-organic food, with a focus on fresh produce, are also presented and compared. The results support the notion that organic farms apply pesticides far less intensively than conventional farms, in part because, over time on well-managed organic farms, pest pressure falls when compared to the levels on nearby conventional farms growing the same crops. Biopesticides are the predominant pesticides used in organic production, which work by a non-toxic mode of action, and pose minimal risks to human health and the environment. Consequently, eating organic food, especially fruits and vegetables, can largely eliminate the risks posed by pesticide dietary exposure. We recommend ways to lower the pesticide risks by increased adoption of organic farming practices and highlight options along organic food supply chains to further reduce pesticide use, exposures, and adverse worker and environmental impacts. FULL TEXT


Mesnage et al., 2021C

Mesnage R, Mazzacuva F, Caldwell A, Halket J, Antoniou MN. “Urinary excretion of herbicide co-formulants after oral exposure to roundup MON 52276 in rats.” Environmental Research. 2021 Jun;197:111103. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111103.

ABSTRACT:

The toxicity of surfactants, which are an integral component of glyphosate-formulated products is an underexplored and highly debated subject. Since biomonitoring human exposure to glyphosate co-formulants is considered as a public health priority, we developed and validated a high-resolution mass spectrometry method to measure the urinary excretion of surfactants present in Roundup MON 52276, the European Union (EU) representative formulation of glyphosate-based herbicides. Quantification was performed measuring the 5 most abundant compounds in the mixture. We validated the method and showed that it is highly accurate, precise and reproducible with a limit of detection of 0.0004 μg/mL. We used this method to estimate the oral absorption of MON 52276 surfactants in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to three concentrations of MON 52276 via drinking water for 90 days. MON 52276 surfactants were readily detected in urine of rats administered with this commercial Roundup formulation starting from a low concentration corresponding to the EU glyphosate acceptable daily intake. Our results provide a first step towards the implementation of surfactant co-formulant biomonitoring in human populations. FULL TEXT