Bibliography Tag: endocrine disruptors

Attina et al., 2016

Attina, T. M., Hauser, R., Sathyanarayana, S., Hunt, P. A., Bourguignon, J. P., Myers, J. P., DiGangi, J., Zoeller, R. T., & Trasande, L.; “Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the USA: a population-based disease burden and cost analysis;” Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 2016, 4(12), 996-1003; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30275-3.


BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison.

METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders. We used Monte Carlo methods to produce realistic probability ranges for costs across the exposure-response relation, taking into account uncertainties. Estimates were made based on population and costs in the USA in 2010. Costs for the European Union were converted to US$ (€1=$1·33).

FINDINGS: The disease costs of EDCs were much higher in the USA than in Europe ($340 billion [2·33% of GDP] vs $217 billion [1·28%]). The difference was driven mainly by intelligence quotient (IQ) points loss and intellectual disability due to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (11 million IQ points lost and 43 000 cases costing $266 billion in the USA vs 873 000 IQ points lost and 3290 cases costing $12·6 billion in the European Union). Accounting for probability of causation, in the European Union, organophosphate pesticides were the largest contributor to costs associated with EDC exposure ($121 billion), whereas in the USA costs due to pesticides were much lower ($42 billion).

INTERPRETATION: EDC exposure in the USA contributes to disease and dysfunction, with annual costs taking up more than 2% of the GDP. Differences from the European Union suggest the need for improved screening for chemical disruption to endocrine systems and proactive prevention.

Andersen et al., 2008

Andersen, H. R., Schmidt, I. M., Grandjean, P., Jensen, T. K., Budtz-Jorgensen, E., Kjaerstad, M. B., Baelum, J., Nielsen, J. B., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Main, K. M.; “Impaired reproductive development in sons of women occupationally exposed to pesticides during pregnancy;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(4), 566-572; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.10790.


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy causes adverse effects on the reproductive development in the male infants.

DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Pregnant women employed in greenhouses in Denmark were consecutively recruited, and 113 mother-son pairs were included. The mothers were categorized as occupationally exposed (91 sons) or unexposed (22 sons) to pesticides during pregnancy. Testicular position and volume, penile length, and position of urethral opening were determined at 3 months of age using standardized techniques. Concentrations of reproductive hormones in serum from the boys were analyzed.

RESULTS: The prevalence of cryptorchidism at 3 months of age was 6.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-12.4]. This prevalence was considerably higher than among Danish boys born in the Copenhagen area (1.9%; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0) examined by the same procedure. Boys of pesticide-exposed mothers showed decreased penile length, testicular volume, serum concentrations of testosterone, and inhibin B. Serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and the luteinizing hormone: testosterone ratio were increased compared with boys of nonexposed mothers. For individual parameters, only the decreased penile length was statistically significant (p = 0.04). However, all observed effects were in the anticipated direction, and a joint multivariate test showed that this finding had a p-value of 0.012.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on reproductive development in the sons despite current greenhouse safeguards and special measures to protect pregnant women.


Brehm and Flaws, 2019

Brehm, E., & Flaws, J. A.; “Transgenerational Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Male and Female Reproduction;” Endocrinology, 2019, 160(6), 1421-1435; DOI: 10.1210/en.2019-00034.


Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, and environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been shown to negatively affect both male and female reproduction. Exposure to these chemicals occurs on a daily basis owing to these compounds being found in plastics, personal care products, and pesticides. Recently, studies have shown that these chemicals may cause transgenerational effects on reproduction in both males and females. This is of concern because exposure to these chemicals prenatally or during adult life can negatively impact the reproductive health of future generations. This mini-review summarizes the endocrine-disrupting chemicals that humans are exposed to on a daily basis and what is known about the transgenerational effects that these chemicals may have on male and female reproduction. FULL TEXT

Lorenz et al., 2019

Lorenz, V., Milesi, M. M., Schimpf, M. G., Luque, E. H., & Varayoud, J.; “Epigenetic disruption of estrogen receptor alpha is induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide in the preimplantation uterus of rats;” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2019, 480, 133-141; DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2018.10.022.


Previously, we have shown that perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) induces implantation failures in rats. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is critical for successful implantation. ERalpha transcription is under the control of five promoters (E1, OT, O, ON, and OS), which yield different transcripts. Here, we studied whether perinatal exposure to a GBH alters uterine ERalpha gene expression and prompts epigenetic modifications in its regulatory regions during the preimplantation period. Pregnant rats (F0) were orally treated with 350mg glyphosate/kg bw/day through food from gestational day (GD) 9 until weaning. F1 females were bred, and uterine samples were collected on GD5 (preimplantation period). ERalpha mRNA levels and its transcript variants were evaluated by RT-qPCR. Enzyme-specific restriction sites and predicted transcription factors were searched in silico in the ERalpha promoter regions to assess the methylation status using the methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes-PCR technique. Post-translational modifications of histones were studied by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. GBH upregulated the expression of total ERalpha mRNA by increasing the abundance of the ERalpha-O transcript variant. In addition, different epigenetic changes were detected in the O promoter. A decrease in DNA methylation was observed in one of the three sites evaluated in the O promoter. Moreover, histone H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) were enriched in the O promoter in GBH-exposed rats, whereas H3K27me3 was decreased. All these alterations could account for the increase in ERalpha gene expression. Our findings show that perinatal exposure to a GBH causes long-term epigenetic disruption of the uterine ERalpha gene, which could be associated with the GBH-induced implantation failures. FULL TEXT


Meftaul et al.; 2020

Meftaul, I. M., Venkateswarlu, K., Dharmarajan, R., Annamalai, P., Asaduzzaman, M., Parven, A., & Megharaj, M.; “Controversies over human health and ecological impacts of glyphosate: Is it to be banned in modern agriculture?;” Environmental Pollution, 2020, 263(Pt A), 114372; DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114372.


Glyphosate, introduced by Monsanto Company under the commercial name Roundup in 1974, became the extensively used herbicide worldwide in the last few decades. Glyphosate has excellent properties of fast sorption in soil, biodegradation and less toxicity to nontarget organisms. However, glyphosate has been reported to increase the risk of cancer, endocrine-disruption, celiac disease, autism, effect on erythrocytes, leaky-gut syndrome, etc. The reclassification of glyphosate in 2015 as ‘probably carcinogenic’ under Group 2A by the International Agency for Research on Cancer has been broadly circulated by anti-chemical and environmental advocacy groups claiming for restricted use or ban of glyphosate. In contrast, some comprehensive epidemiological studies involving farmers with long-time exposure to glyphosate in USA and elsewhere coupled with available toxicological data showed no correlation with any kind of carcinogenic or genotoxic threat to humans. Moreover, several investigations confirmed that the surfactant, polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA), contained in the formulations of glyphosate like Roundup, is responsible for the established adverse impacts on human and ecological health. Subsequent to the evolution of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops and the extensive use of glyphosate over the last 45 years, about 38 weed species developed resistance to this herbicide. Consequently, its use in the recent years has been either restricted or banned in 20 countries. This critical review on glyphosate provides an overview of its behaviour, fate, detrimental impacts on ecological and human health, and the development of resistance in weeds and pathogens. Thus, the ultimate objective is to help the authorities and agencies concerned in resolving the existing controversies and in providing the necessary regulations for safer use of the herbicide. In our opinion, glyphosate can be judiciously used in agriculture with the inclusion of safer surfactants in commercial formulations sine POEA, which is toxic by itself is likely to increase the toxicity of glyphosate. FULL TEXT

Pham et al., 2019

Pham, T. H., Derian, L., Kervarrec, C., Kernanec, P. Y., Jegou, B., Smagulova, F., & Gely-Pernot, A.; “Perinatal Exposure to Glyphosate and a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Affect Spermatogenesis in Mice;” Toxicological Science, 2019, 169(1), 260-271; DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfz039.


Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world. Several studies have investigated the effects of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) on male reproduction, but there is still little and conflicting evidence for its toxicity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of glyphosate, alone or in formula, on the male reproductive system. Pregnant mice were treated from E10.5 to 20 days postpartum by adding glyphosate or a GBH (Roundup 3 Plus) to their drinking water at 0.5 (the acceptable daily intake, ADI dose), 5 and 50 mg/kg/day. Male offspring derived from treated mice were sacrificed at 5, 20, and 35 days old (d.o.) and 8 months old (m.o.) for analysis. Our result showed that exposure to glyphosate, but not GBH, affects testis morphology in 20 d.o. and decrease serum testosterone concentrations in 35 d.o. males. We identified that the spermatozoa number decreased by 89% and 84% in 0.5 and 5 mg/kg/day of GBH and glyphosate groups, respectively. Moreover, the undifferentiated spermatogonia numbers were decreased by 60% in 5 mg/kg/day glyphosate group, which could be due to the alterations in the expression of genes involved in germ cell differentiation such as Sall4 and Nano3 and apoptosis as Bax and Bcl2. In 8 m.o. animals, a decreased testosterone level was observed in GBH groups. Our data demonstrate that glyphosate and GBHs could cause endocrine-disrupting effects on male reproduction at low doses. As glyphosate has effects at the ADI level, our data suggest that the current ADI for glyphosate could be overestimated.

Rattan and Flaws, 2019

Rattan, S., & Flaws, J. A.; “The epigenetic impacts of endocrine disruptors on female reproduction across generationsdagger;” Biology of Reproduction, 2019, 101(3), 635-644; DOI: 10.1093/biolre/ioz081.


Humans and animals are repeatedly exposed to endocrine disruptors, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment. Endocrine disruptors interfere with hormone action; thus, causing non-monotonic dose responses that are atypical of standard toxicant exposures. The female reproductive system is particularly susceptible to the effects of endocrine disruptors. Likewise, exposures to endocrine disruptors during developmental periods are particularly concerning because programming during development can be adversely impacted by hormone level changes. Subsequently, developing reproductive tissues can be predisposed to diseases in adulthood and these diseases can be passed down to future generations. The mechanisms of action by which endocrine disruptors cause disease transmission to future generations are thought to include epigenetic modifications. This review highlights the effects of endocrine disruptors on the female reproductive system, with an emphasis on the multi- and transgenerational epigenetic effects of these exposures. FULL TEXT

Ingaramo et al., 2020

Ingaramo, P., Alarcon, R., Munoz-de-Toro, M., & Luque, E. H.; “Are glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides endocrine disruptors that alter female fertility?;” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2020, 110934; DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2020.110934.


Numerous evidences have alerted on the toxic effects of the exposure to glyphosate on living organisms. Glyphosate is the herbicide most used in crops such as maize and soybean worldwide, which implies that several non-target species are at a high risk of exposure. Although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) has reaffirmed that glyphosate is safe for users, there are controversial studies that question this statement. Some of the reported effects are due to exposure to high doses; however, recent evidences have shown that exposure to low doses could also alter the development of the female reproductive tract, with consequences on fertility. Different animal models of exposure to glyphosate or glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) have shown that the effects on the female reproductive tract may be related to the potential and/or mechanisms of actions of an endocrine-disrupting compound. Studies have also demonstrated that the exposure to GBHs alters the development and differentiation of ovarian follicles and uterus, affecting fertility when animals are exposed before puberty. In addition, exposure to GBHs during gestation could alter the development of the offspring (F1 and F2). The main mechanism described associated with the endocrine-disrupting effect of GBHs is the modulation of estrogen receptors and molecules involved in the estrogenic pathways. This review summarizes the endocrine-disrupting effects of exposure to glyphosate and GBHs at low or “environmentally relevant” doses in the female reproductive tissues. Data suggesting that, at low doses, GBHs may have adverse effects on the female reproductive tract fertility are discussed. FULL TEXT

Christensen et al., 2016

Christensen, C. H., Barry, K. H., Andreotti, G., Alavanja, M. C., Cook, M. B., Kelly, S. P., Burdett, L. A., Yeager, M., Beane Freeman, L. E., Berndt, S. I., & Koutros, S.; “Sex Steroid Hormone Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, Pesticide Use, and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study;” Frontiers in Oncology, 2016, 6, 237; DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2016.00237.


Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation, and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here, we evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide-SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1,444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation (N = 1,100), as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations, as identified by genome-wide association studies (N = 17). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction = 4.0 x 10(-5); q-value = 0.03), such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR = 0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93) and high use of dicamba (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68), compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both agonistic and antagonistic effects on circulating hormones, due to the combination of exposure to pesticides and genetic susceptibility, may impact prostate cancer risk. FULL TEXT

Hernandez et al, 2013

Hernandez, A. F., Parron, T., Tsatsakis, A. M., Requena, M., Alarcon, R., & Lopez-Guarnido, O.; “Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: their relevance to human health;” Toxicology, 2013, 307, 136-145; DOI: 10.1016/j.tox.2012.06.009.


Pesticides almost always occur in mixtures with other ones. The toxicological effects of low-dose pesticide mixtures on the human health are largely unknown, although there are growing concerns about their safety. The combined toxicological effects of two or more components of a pesticide mixture can take one of three forms: independent, dose addition or interaction. Not all mixtures of pesticides with similar chemical structures produce additive effects; thus, if they act on multiple sites their mixtures may produce different toxic effects. The additive approach also fails when evaluating mixtures that involve a secondary chemical that changes the toxicokinetics of the pesticide as a result of its increased activation or decreased detoxification, which is followed by an enhanced or reduced toxicity, respectively. This review addresses a number of toxicological interactions of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level. Examples of such interactions include the postulated mechanisms for the potentiation of pyrethroid, carbaryl and triazine herbicides toxicity by organophosphates; how the toxicity of some organophosphates can be potentiated by other organophosphates or by previous exposure to organochlorines; the synergism between pyrethroid and carbamate compounds and the antagonism between triazine herbicides and prochloraz. Particular interactions are also addressed, such as those of pesticides acting as endocrine disruptors, the cumulative toxicity of organophosphates and organochlorines resulting in estrogenic effects and the promotion of organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy. FULL TEXT