Bibliography Tag: endocrine disruptors

Rezende et al., 2021

Rezende, E.C.N., Carneiro, F.M., de Moraes, J.B. et al. “Trends in science on glyphosate toxicity: a scientometric study.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 56432–56448 (2021). DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14556-4


As part of the most used herbicides, glyphosate is the most successful ingredient of agrochemical companies. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate research trends related to the glyphosate toxicity and its main effects on human and environmental health. For this purpose, 443 articles published, from 1995 to 2020, on the platform Web of Science™ Thomson Reuters were selected. The main toxicity results related in literature are genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. The environmental effects come mostly from the contamination of groundwater and soils. Several studies have concluded that herbicide concentrations right below the official safety limits induced toxic effects. The results presented a highlighted harmful effect of glyphosate on both human and environmental health. It has been observed that countries where publish the most about the glyphosate toxicity are great investors in large-scale agriculture. It is important to ponder that these countries are in a route of ecosystem exploitation that includes not only fauna and flora, but also human beings. Unfortunately, science does not provide concise data for these pesticide disapproval in the global consumer market. It is necessary to search sustainable global interest alternatives to increase agriculture production based on peoples’ food sovereignty. FULL TEXT

Munoz et al., 2020

Munoz, J. P., Bleak, T. C., & Calaf, G. M.; “Glyphosate and the key characteristics of an endocrine disruptor: A review;” Chemosphere, 2020, 128619; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128619.


Glyphosate is a large-spectrum herbicide that was introduced on the market in 1974. Due to its important impact on the crop industry, it has been significantly diversified and expanded being considered the most successful herbicide in history. Currently, its massive use has led to a wide environmental diffusion and its human consumption through food products has made possible to detect it in urine, serum, and breast milk samples. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned its safety and international agencies have conflicting opinions about its effects on human health, mainly as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) and its carcinogenic capacity. Here, we conduct a comprehensive review where we describe the most important findings of the glyphosate effects in the endocrine system and asses the mechanistic evidence to classify it as an EDC. We use as guideline the ten key characteristics (KCs) of EDC proposed in the expert consensus statement published in 2020 (La Merrill et al., 2020) and discuss the scopes of some epidemiological studies for the evaluation of glyphosate as possible EDC. We conclude that glyphosate satisfies at least 8 KCs of an EDC, however, prospective cohort studies are still needed to elucidate the real effects in the human endocrine system.  FULL TEXT

Rohr, 2021

Rohr, J. R.; “The Atrazine Saga and its Importance to the Future of Toxicology, Science, and Environmental and Human Health;” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2021, 40(6), 1544-1558; DOI: 10.1002/etc.5037.


The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly used, well studied, and controversial pesticides on the planet. Much of the controversy involves the effects of atrazine on wildlife, particularly amphibians, and the ethically questionable decision making of members of industry, government, the legal system, and institutions of higher education, in most cases in an effort to “bend science,” defined as manipulating research to advance economic, political, or ideological ends. In this Critical Perspective I provide a timeline of the most salient events in the history of the atrazine saga, which includes a multimillion-dollar smear campaign, lawsuits, investigative reporting, accusation of impropriety against the US Environmental Protection Agency, and a multibillion-dollar transaction. I argue that the atrazine controversy must be more than just a true story of cover-ups, bias, and vengeance. It must be used as an example of how manufacturing uncertainty and bending science can be exploited to delay undesired regulatory decisions and how greed and conflicts of interest—situations where personal or organizational considerations have compromised or biased professional judgment and objectivity—can affect environmental and public health and erode trust in the discipline of toxicology, science in general, and the honorable functioning of societies. Most importantly, I offer several recommendations that should help to 1) prevent the history of atrazine from repeating itself, 2) enhance the credibility and integrity of science, and 3) enrich human and environmental health. FULL TEXT


Milesi et al., 2021

Milesi, M. M., Lorenz, V., Durando, M., Rossetti, M. F., & Varayoud, J. “Glyphosate Herbicide: Reproductive Outcomes and Multigenerational Effects.” Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. 2021; DOI:10.3389/fendo.2021.672532.


Glyphosate base herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely applied pesticides in the world and are mainly used in association with GBH-tolerant crop varieties. Indiscriminate and negligent use of GBHs has promoted the emergence of glyphosate resistant weeds, and consequently the rise in the use of these herbicides. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of all GBHs, is combined with other chemicals known as co-formulants that enhance the herbicide action. Nowadays, the safety of glyphosate and its formulations remain to be a controversial issue, as evidence is not conclusive whether the adverse effects are caused by GBH or glyphosate, and little is known about the contribution of co-formulants to the toxicity of herbicides. Currently, alarmingly increased levels of glyphosate have been detected in different environmental matrixes and in foodstuff, becoming an issue of social concern. Some in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glyphosate and its formulations exhibit estrogen-like properties, and growing evidence has indicated they may disrupt normal endocrine function, with adverse consequences for reproductive health. Moreover, multigenerational effects have been reported and epigenetic mechanisms have been proved to be involved in the alterations induced by the herbicide. In this review, we provide an overview of: i) the routes and levels of human exposure to GBHs, ii) the potential estrogenic effects of glyphosate and GBHs in cell culture and animal models, iii) their long-term effects on female fertility and mechanisms of action, and iv) the consequences on health of successive generations. FULL TEXT

Mnif et al., 2011

Mnif W, Hassine AI, Bouaziz A, Bartegi A, Thomas O, Roig B. “Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011 Jun;8(6):2265-303. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062265.

ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. FULL TEXT

Attina et al., 2016

Attina, T. M., Hauser, R., Sathyanarayana, S., Hunt, P. A., Bourguignon, J. P., Myers, J. P., DiGangi, J., Zoeller, R. T., & Trasande, L.; “Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the USA: a population-based disease burden and cost analysis;” Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 2016, 4(12), 996-1003; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30275-3.


BACKGROUND: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to disease and dysfunction and incur high associated costs (>1% of the gross domestic product [GDP] in the European Union). Exposure to EDCs varies widely between the USA and Europe because of differences in regulations and, therefore, we aimed to quantify disease burdens and related economic costs to allow comparison.

METHODS: We used existing models for assessing epidemiological and toxicological studies to reach consensus on probabilities of causation for 15 exposure-response relations between substances and disorders. We used Monte Carlo methods to produce realistic probability ranges for costs across the exposure-response relation, taking into account uncertainties. Estimates were made based on population and costs in the USA in 2010. Costs for the European Union were converted to US$ (€1=$1·33).

FINDINGS: The disease costs of EDCs were much higher in the USA than in Europe ($340 billion [2·33% of GDP] vs $217 billion [1·28%]). The difference was driven mainly by intelligence quotient (IQ) points loss and intellectual disability due to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (11 million IQ points lost and 43 000 cases costing $266 billion in the USA vs 873 000 IQ points lost and 3290 cases costing $12·6 billion in the European Union). Accounting for probability of causation, in the European Union, organophosphate pesticides were the largest contributor to costs associated with EDC exposure ($121 billion), whereas in the USA costs due to pesticides were much lower ($42 billion).

INTERPRETATION: EDC exposure in the USA contributes to disease and dysfunction, with annual costs taking up more than 2% of the GDP. Differences from the European Union suggest the need for improved screening for chemical disruption to endocrine systems and proactive prevention.

Andersen et al., 2008

Andersen, H. R., Schmidt, I. M., Grandjean, P., Jensen, T. K., Budtz-Jorgensen, E., Kjaerstad, M. B., Baelum, J., Nielsen, J. B., Skakkebaek, N. E., & Main, K. M.; “Impaired reproductive development in sons of women occupationally exposed to pesticides during pregnancy;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(4), 566-572; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.10790.


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether occupational pesticide exposure during pregnancy causes adverse effects on the reproductive development in the male infants.

DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Pregnant women employed in greenhouses in Denmark were consecutively recruited, and 113 mother-son pairs were included. The mothers were categorized as occupationally exposed (91 sons) or unexposed (22 sons) to pesticides during pregnancy. Testicular position and volume, penile length, and position of urethral opening were determined at 3 months of age using standardized techniques. Concentrations of reproductive hormones in serum from the boys were analyzed.

RESULTS: The prevalence of cryptorchidism at 3 months of age was 6.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 3.0-12.4]. This prevalence was considerably higher than among Danish boys born in the Copenhagen area (1.9%; 95% CI, 1.2-3.0) examined by the same procedure. Boys of pesticide-exposed mothers showed decreased penile length, testicular volume, serum concentrations of testosterone, and inhibin B. Serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and the luteinizing hormone: testosterone ratio were increased compared with boys of nonexposed mothers. For individual parameters, only the decreased penile length was statistically significant (p = 0.04). However, all observed effects were in the anticipated direction, and a joint multivariate test showed that this finding had a p-value of 0.012.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on reproductive development in the sons despite current greenhouse safeguards and special measures to protect pregnant women.


Brehm and Flaws, 2019

Brehm, E., & Flaws, J. A.; “Transgenerational Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Male and Female Reproduction;” Endocrinology, 2019, 160(6), 1421-1435; DOI: 10.1210/en.2019-00034.


Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are known to interfere with normal reproductive function and hormone signaling. Phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, and environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals that have been shown to negatively affect both male and female reproduction. Exposure to these chemicals occurs on a daily basis owing to these compounds being found in plastics, personal care products, and pesticides. Recently, studies have shown that these chemicals may cause transgenerational effects on reproduction in both males and females. This is of concern because exposure to these chemicals prenatally or during adult life can negatively impact the reproductive health of future generations. This mini-review summarizes the endocrine-disrupting chemicals that humans are exposed to on a daily basis and what is known about the transgenerational effects that these chemicals may have on male and female reproduction. FULL TEXT

Lorenz et al., 2019

Lorenz, V., Milesi, M. M., Schimpf, M. G., Luque, E. H., & Varayoud, J.; “Epigenetic disruption of estrogen receptor alpha is induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide in the preimplantation uterus of rats;” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 2019, 480, 133-141; DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2018.10.022.


Previously, we have shown that perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) induces implantation failures in rats. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is critical for successful implantation. ERalpha transcription is under the control of five promoters (E1, OT, O, ON, and OS), which yield different transcripts. Here, we studied whether perinatal exposure to a GBH alters uterine ERalpha gene expression and prompts epigenetic modifications in its regulatory regions during the preimplantation period. Pregnant rats (F0) were orally treated with 350mg glyphosate/kg bw/day through food from gestational day (GD) 9 until weaning. F1 females were bred, and uterine samples were collected on GD5 (preimplantation period). ERalpha mRNA levels and its transcript variants were evaluated by RT-qPCR. Enzyme-specific restriction sites and predicted transcription factors were searched in silico in the ERalpha promoter regions to assess the methylation status using the methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes-PCR technique. Post-translational modifications of histones were studied by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. GBH upregulated the expression of total ERalpha mRNA by increasing the abundance of the ERalpha-O transcript variant. In addition, different epigenetic changes were detected in the O promoter. A decrease in DNA methylation was observed in one of the three sites evaluated in the O promoter. Moreover, histone H4 acetylation and histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) were enriched in the O promoter in GBH-exposed rats, whereas H3K27me3 was decreased. All these alterations could account for the increase in ERalpha gene expression. Our findings show that perinatal exposure to a GBH causes long-term epigenetic disruption of the uterine ERalpha gene, which could be associated with the GBH-induced implantation failures. FULL TEXT


Meftaul et al.; 2020

Meftaul, I. M., Venkateswarlu, K., Dharmarajan, R., Annamalai, P., Asaduzzaman, M., Parven, A., & Megharaj, M.; “Controversies over human health and ecological impacts of glyphosate: Is it to be banned in modern agriculture?;” Environmental Pollution, 2020, 263(Pt A), 114372; DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114372.


Glyphosate, introduced by Monsanto Company under the commercial name Roundup in 1974, became the extensively used herbicide worldwide in the last few decades. Glyphosate has excellent properties of fast sorption in soil, biodegradation and less toxicity to nontarget organisms. However, glyphosate has been reported to increase the risk of cancer, endocrine-disruption, celiac disease, autism, effect on erythrocytes, leaky-gut syndrome, etc. The reclassification of glyphosate in 2015 as ‘probably carcinogenic’ under Group 2A by the International Agency for Research on Cancer has been broadly circulated by anti-chemical and environmental advocacy groups claiming for restricted use or ban of glyphosate. In contrast, some comprehensive epidemiological studies involving farmers with long-time exposure to glyphosate in USA and elsewhere coupled with available toxicological data showed no correlation with any kind of carcinogenic or genotoxic threat to humans. Moreover, several investigations confirmed that the surfactant, polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA), contained in the formulations of glyphosate like Roundup, is responsible for the established adverse impacts on human and ecological health. Subsequent to the evolution of genetically modified glyphosate-resistant crops and the extensive use of glyphosate over the last 45 years, about 38 weed species developed resistance to this herbicide. Consequently, its use in the recent years has been either restricted or banned in 20 countries. This critical review on glyphosate provides an overview of its behaviour, fate, detrimental impacts on ecological and human health, and the development of resistance in weeds and pathogens. Thus, the ultimate objective is to help the authorities and agencies concerned in resolving the existing controversies and in providing the necessary regulations for safer use of the herbicide. In our opinion, glyphosate can be judiciously used in agriculture with the inclusion of safer surfactants in commercial formulations sine POEA, which is toxic by itself is likely to increase the toxicity of glyphosate. FULL TEXT