Bibliography Tag: epigenetic impacts

McEwen et al., 2019

McEwen, L. M., O’Donnell, K. J., McGill, M. G., Edgar, R. D., Jones, M. J., MacIsaac, J. L., Lin, D. T. S., Ramadori, K., Morin, A., Gladish, N., Garg, E., Unternaehrer, E., Pokhvisneva, I., Karnani, N., Kee, M. Z. L., Klengel, T., Adler, N. E., Barr, R. G., Letourneau, N., Giesbrecht, G. F., Reynolds, J. N., Czamara, D., Armstrong, J. M., Essex, M. J., de Weerth, C., Beijers, R., Tollenaar, M. S., Bradley, B., Jovanovic, T., Ressler, K. J., Steiner, M., Entringer, S., Wadhwa, P. D., Buss, C., Bush, N. R., Binder, E. B., Boyce, W. T., Meaney, M. J., Horvath, S., & Kobor, M. S.; “The PedBE clock accurately estimates DNA methylation age in pediatric buccal cells;” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1820843116.

ABSTRACT:

The development of biological markers of aging has primarily focused on adult samples. Epigenetic clocks are a promising tool for measuring biological age that show impressive accuracy across most tissues and age ranges. In adults, deviations from the DNA methylation (DNAm) age prediction are correlated with several age-related phenotypes, such as mortality and frailty. In children, however, fewer such associations have been made, possibly because DNAm changes are more dynamic in pediatric populations as compared to adults. To address this gap, we aimed to develop a highly accurate, noninvasive, biological measure of age specific to pediatric samples using buccal epithelial cell DNAm. We gathered 1,721 genome-wide DNAm profiles from 11 different cohorts of typically developing individuals aged 0 to 20 y old. Elastic net penalized regression was used to select 94 CpG sites from a training dataset (n = 1,032), with performance assessed in a separate test dataset (n = 689). DNAm at these 94 CpG sites was highly predictive of age in the test cohort (median absolute error = 0.35 y). The Pediatric-Buccal-Epigenetic (PedBE) clock was characterized in additional cohorts, showcasing the accuracy in longitudinal data, the performance in nonbuccal tissues and adult age ranges, and the association with obstetric outcomes. The PedBE tool for measuring biological age in children might help in understanding the environmental and contextual factors that shape the DNA methylome during child development, and how it, in turn, might relate to child health and disease. FULL TEXT


Duforestel et al., 2019

Duforestel, Manon, Nadaradjane, Arulraj, Bougras-Cartron, Gwenola, Briand, Joséphine, Olivier, Christophe, Frenel, Jean-Sébastien, Vallette, François M., Lelièvre, Sophie A., & Cartron, Pierre-François; “Glyphosate Primes Mammary Cells for Tumorigenesis by Reprogramming the Epigenome in a TET3-Dependent Manner;” Frontiers in Genetics, 2019, 10; DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2019.00885.

ABSTRACT:

The acknowledgment that pollutants might influence the epigenome raises serious concerns regarding their long-term impact on the development of chronic diseases. The herbicide glyphosate has been scrutinized for an impact on cancer incidence, but reports demonstrate the difficulty of linking estimates of exposure and response analysis. An approach to better apprehend a potential risk impact for cancer is to follow a synergistic approach, as cancer rarely occurs in response to one risk factor. The known influence of glyphosate on estrogen-regulated pathway makes it a logical target of investigation in breast cancer research. We have used nonneoplastic MCF10A cells in a repeated glyphosate exposure pattern over 21 days. Glyphosate triggered a significant reduction in DNA methylation, as shown by the level of 5-methylcytosine DNA; however, in contrast to strong demethylating agent and cancer promoter UP peptide, glyphosate-treated cells did not lead to tumor development. Whereas UP acts through a DNMT1/PCNA/UHRF1 pathway, glyphosate triggered increased activity of ten-eleven translocation (TET)3. Combining glyphosate with enhanced expression of microRNA (miR) 182-5p associated with breast cancer induced tumor development in 50% of mice. Culture of primary cells from resected tumors revealed a luminal B (ER+/PR-/HER2-) phenotype in response to glyphosate-miR182-5p exposure with sensitivity to tamoxifen and invasive and migratory potentials. Tumor development could be prevented either by specifically inhibiting miR 182-5p or by treating glyphosate-miR 182-5p-cells with dimethyloxallyl glycine, an inhibitor of TET pathway. Looking for potential epigenetic marks of TET-mediated gene regulation under glyphosate exposure, we identified MTRNR2L2 and DUX4 genes, the hypomethylation of which was sustained even after stopping glyphosate exposure for 6 weeks. Our findings reveal that low pressure but sustained DNA hypomethylation occurring via the TET pathway primes cells for oncogenic response in the presence of another potential risk factor. These results warrant further investigation of glyphosate-mediated breast cancer risk. FULL TEXT


Ren et al., 2019

Ren, X., Dai, P., Perveen, A., Tang, Q., Zhao, L., Jia, X., Li, Y., & Li, C.; “Effects of chronic glyphosate exposure to pregnant mice on hepatic lipid metabolism in offspring;” Environmental Pollution, 2019, 254(Pt A), 112906; DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.074.

ABSTRACT:

Glyphosate is the active ingredient in Roundup, one of the most popular herbicides in the world, and its toxicity has caused increasing concerns. The present study aims to investigate the toxic effects of prenatal exposure to pure glyphosate or Roundup on lipid metabolism in offspring. During gestational days (GDs), ICR mice (from Institute of Cancer Research) were given distilled water, 0.5% glyphosate solution (w/v, 0.5 g/100 ml) or 0.5%-glyphosate Roundup solution orally. The livers and serum samples of the offspring were collected on gestational day 19 (GD19), postnatal day 7 (PND7) and PND21. The results showed a significant decrease in the body weight and obvious hepatic steatosis with excessive lipid droplet formation in offspring. Moreover, the concentrations of lipids such as triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (T-CHO), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols (LDL-C) increased to a significant extent in both the serum and livers. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the expression levels of the genes SREBP1C, SREBP2, Fasn, Hmgcr, Hmgcs and PPARa, which are related to lipid biosynthesis or catabolism in the liver. These results demonstrate that chronic prenatal exposure to glyphosate can result in lipid metabolism disruption in the offspring of mice, as glyphosate exerts a negative influence on the expression of lipogenesis genes. FULL TEXT


International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2019

International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics; “Removal of glyphosate from global usage: A Statement by the FIGO Reproductive and Developmental Environmental Health Committee,” Available at: https://www.figo.org/statement-glyphosate-removal, Date posted: 07/31/2019, Date accessed: 8/6/2019.

SUMMARY:

The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), a professional group that advocates for OB/GYN groups around the world.   They work with the World Health Organization and United Nations to consult on women and children’s health and wellness issues, recommends that all glyphosate use be phased out due to “the recognised impact on the health and well-being of women and newborn children worldwide.”

FIGO points out the conflicting opinions about the safety of glyphosate, as evidenced by the EPA and IARC’s diametric designations as “non-carcinogenic” and “probably carcinogenic,” respectively.  But, they argue, given that the most recent meta-analysis from February 2019 found “a compelling link between non-Hodgkins lymphoma and glyphosate,” and rodent studies have demonstrated the potential for transgenerational epigenetic changes,  FIGO urges governments to apply the precautionary principal and prioritize “establishing safety, now and across generations, prior to exposure to chemical products.” They conclude: “We recommend that glyphosate exposure to populations should end with a full global phase out.” FULL TEXT


Teleken et al., 2019

Teleken, J. L., Gomes, E. C. Z., Marmentini, C., Moi, M. B., Ribeiro, R. A., Balbo, S. L., Amorim, E. M. P., & Bonfleur, M. L.; “Glyphosate-based herbicide exposure during pregnancy and lactation malprograms the male reproductive morphofunction in F1 offspring;” Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 2019, 1-8; DOI: 10.1017/s2040174419000382.

ABSTRACT:

One of the most consumed pesticides in the world is glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide ROUNDUP(R). Studies demonstrate that glyphosate can act as an endocrine disruptor and that exposure to this substance at critical periods in the developmental period may program the fetus to induce reproductive damage in adulthood. Our hypothesis is that maternal exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation in mice will affect the development of male reproductive organs, impairing male fertility during adult life. Female mice consumed 0.5% glyphosate-ROUNDUP(R) in their drinking water [glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) group] or filtered water [control (CTRL) group] from the fourth day of pregnancy until the end of the lactation period. Male F1 offspring were designated, according to their mother’s treatment, as CTRL-F1 and GBH-F1. Female mice that drank glyphosate displayed reduced body weight (BW) gain during gestation, but no alterations in litter size. Although GBH male F1 offspring did not exhibit modifications in BW, they demonstrated delayed testicular descent. Furthermore, at PND150, GBH-F1 mice presented a lower number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis and reduced epithelial height of the seminiferous epithelium. Notably, intratesticular testosterone concentrations were enhanced in GBH-F1 mice; we show that it is an effect associated with increased plasma and pituitary concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Therefore, data indicate that maternal exposure to glyphosate-ROUNDUP(R) during pregnancy and lactation may lead to decreased spermatogenesis and disruptions in hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis regulation in F1 offspring.


Kubsad et al., 2019

Kubsad, D., Nilsson, E. E., King, S. E., Sadler-Riggleman, I., Beck, D., & Skinner, M. K.; “Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology;” Scientific Reports, 2019, 9(1), 6372; DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42860-0.

ABSTRACT:

Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of factors and toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. One of the most widely used agricultural pesticides worldwide is the herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), commonly known as Roundup. There are an increasing number of conflicting reports regarding the direct exposure toxicity (risk) of glyphosate, but no rigorous investigations on the generational actions. The current study using a transient exposure of gestating F0 generation female rats found negligible impacts of glyphosate on the directly exposed F0 generation, or F1 generation offspring pathology. In contrast, dramatic increases in pathologies in the F2 generation grand-offspring, and F3 transgenerational great-grand-offspring were observed. The transgenerational pathologies observed include prostate disease, obesity, kidney disease, ovarian disease, and parturition (birth) abnormalities. Epigenetic analysis of the F1, F2 and F3 generation sperm identified differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). A number of DMR associated genes were identified and previously shown to be involved in pathologies. Therefore, we propose glyphosate can induce the transgenerational inheritance of disease and germline (e.g. sperm) epimutations. Observations suggest the generational toxicology of glyphosate needs to be considered in the disease etiology of future generations. FULL TEXT


Milesi et al., 2018

Milesi, Maria M, Lorenz, Virginia, Pacini, Guillermina, Repetti, Maria R, Demonte, Luisina D, Varayoud, Jorgelina, & Luque, Enrique H, “Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in Wistar rats,” Archives of Toxicology, 2018, 92(8), 2629-2643. DOI: 10.1007/s00204-018-2236-6.

ABSTRACT:

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most globally used herbicides raising the risk of environmental exposition. Here, we investigated whether perinatal exposure to low doses of a GBH alters the female reproductive performance, and/or induced second-generation effects related to congenital anomalies or growth alterations. Pregnant rats (F0) received a GBH through food, in a dose of 2 mg (GBH-LD: GBH-low dose group) or 200 mg (GBH-HD: GBH-high dose group) of glyphosate/kg bw/day from gestational day (GD) 9 until weaning. Body weight gain and vaginal canal-opening of F1 females were recorded. Sexually mature F1 females were mated to evaluate their reproductive performance by assessing the pregnancy rate, and on GD19, the number of corpora lutea, the implantation sites (IS) and resorption sites. To analyze second-generation effects on F2 offspring, we analyzed the fetal morphology on GD19, and assessed the fetal length and weight, and the placental weight. GBH exposure neither altered the body weight gain of F1 females, nor vaginal opening onset. Although all GBH-exposed F1 rats became pregnant, a lower number of IS was detected. F2 offspring from both GBH groups showed delayed growth, evidenced by lower fetal weight and length, associated with a higher incidence of small for gestational age fetuses. In addition, higher placental weight and placental index were found in F2 offspring from GBH-HD dams. Surprisingly, structural congenital anomalies (conjoined fetuses and abnormally developed limbs) were detected in the F2 offspring from GBH-HD group. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to low doses of a GBH impaired female reproductive performance and induced fetal growth retardation and structural congenital anomalies in F2 offspring. FULL TEXT


Landrigan and Belpoggi, 2018

Landrigan, P. J., and Belpoggi, F.,”The need for independent research on the health effects of glyphosate-based herbicides,” Environmental Health, 17(1), 51, 2018, doi:10.1186/s12940-018-0392-z.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: Glyphosate, formulated as Roundup, is the world’s most widely used herbicide. Glyphosate is used extensively on genetically modified (GM) food crops designed to tolerate the herbicide, and global use is increasing rapidly. Two recent reviews of glyphosate’s health hazards report conflicting results. An independent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) found that glyphosate is a “probable human carcinogen”. A review by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) found no evidence of carcinogenic hazard. These differing findings have produced regulatory uncertainty.

REGULATORY ACTIONS: Reflecting this regulatory uncertainty, the European Commission on November 27 2017, extended authorization for glyphosate for another 5 years, while the European Parliament opposed this decision and issued a call that pesticide approvals be based on peer-reviewed studies by independent scientists rather than on the current system that relies on proprietary industry studies.

RAMAZZINI INSTITUTE RESPONSE: The Ramazzini Institute has initiated a pilot study of glyphosate’s health hazards that will be followed by an integrated experimental research project. This evaluation will be independent of industry support and entirely sponsored by worldwide crowdfunding. The aim of the Ramazzini Institute project is to explore comprehensively the effects of exposures to glyphosate-based herbicides at current real-world levels on several toxicological endpoints, including carcinogenicity, long-term toxicity, neurotoxicity, endocrine disrupting effects, prenatal developmental toxicity, the microbiome and multi-generational effects. FULL TEXT


Skinner et al., 2015

Skinner MK, Guerrero-Bosagna C, Haque MM, “Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm epimutations promote genetic mutations,” Epigenetics, 2015, 10:8, DOI: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1062207.

ABSTRACT

A variety of environmental factors have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. This involves the germline transmission of epigenetic information between generations. Exposure specific transgenerational sperm epimutations have been previously observed. The current study was designed to investigate the potential role genetic mutations have in the process, using copy number variations (CNV). In the first (F1) generation following exposure, negligible CNV were identified; however, in the transgenerational F3 generation, a significant increase in CNV was observed in the sperm. The genome-wide locations of differential DNA methylation regions (epimutations) and genetic mutations (CNV) were investigated. Observations suggest the environmental induction of the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of sperm epimutations promote genome instability, such that genetic CNV mutations are acquired in later generations. A combination of epigenetics and genetics is suggested to be involved in the transgenerational phenotypes. The ability of environmental factors to promote epigenetic inheritance that subsequently promotes genetic mutations is a significant advance in our understanding of how the environment impacts disease and evolution. FULL TEXT


Manikkam et al., 2013

Mohan Manikkam, Rebecca Tracey, Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna, Michael K. Skinner , “Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations,”  PLoS ONE, January 24, 2013, 8:1, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055387

ABSTRACT:

Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. FULL TEXT