Bibliography Tag: exposure in pets

Miersma et al., 2003

Miersma, Nick A., Pepper, Christopher B., & Anderson, Todd A.; “Organochlorine pesticides in elementary school yards along the Texas–Mexico border;” Environmental Pollution, 2003, 126(1), 65-71; DOI: 10.1016/s0269-7491(03)00126-x.


A reconnaissance study was undertaken to determine potential contaminant exposures to children through soil from elementary school playgrounds. Soil samples were collected from areas along the Texas–Mexico border, inland areas (soils from elementary school yards in cities/towns within the state of Texas), and three National Parks (one on the border, one in Tennessee, and one in Washington). The present study focused on organochlorine (OC) pesticides as the potential contaminants of concern because of their historical (and possibly current) use, and their importance as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). DDE and heptachlor were the most frequently detected OCs (69 and 63%, respectively), although heptachlor concentrations in soil never exceeded 5 ppb. Relatively higher concentrations of DDE were observed in agricultural areas along the border (50–60 ppb in soils from McAllen, Palmview, and San Benito) than in other soils. However, a school yard in Lubbock, TX had the highest OC concentration observed (70 ppb dieldrin). These results may be due to historical agriculture activity prior to the banning of OC pesticides such as DDT in the early 1970s, as well as the more recent use of DDT in Central and South America for malaria control. FULL TEXT

Reynolds et al., 1994

Reynolds, P. M., Reif, J. S., Ramsdell, H. S., & Tessari, J. D.; “Canine exposure to herbicide-treated lawns and urinary excretion of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid;” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, & Prevention, 1994, 3(3), 233-237.


A recent study by Hayes et al. (J. Natl. Cancer. Inst., 83: 1226-1231, 1991) found an increased risk of malignant lymphoma associated with exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in pet dogs. We conducted a study to determine the extent to which dogs absorb and excrete 2,4-D in urine after contact with treated lawns under natural conditions. Among 44 dogs potentially exposed to 2,4-D-treated lawns an average of 10.9 days after application, 2,4-D concentrations greater than or equal to 10.0 micrograms/l were found in 33 dogs (75%) and concentrations of > or = 50 micrograms/l were found in 17 (39%). Among 15 dogs with no known exposure to a 2,4-D-treated lawn in the previous 42 days, 4 (27%) had evidence of 2,4-D in urine, 1 at a concentration of > or = 50 micrograms/l. The odds ratio for the association between exposure to a 2,4-D-treated lawn and the detection of > or = 50 micrograms/l 2,4-D in urine was 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-56.2). Dogs exposed to lawns treated within 7 days before urine collection were more than 50 times as likely to have 2,4-D at concentrations > or = 50 micrograms/l than dogs with exposure to a lawn treated more than 1 week previously (odds ratio = 56.0; 95% confidence interval, 10.0-312.2). The highest mean concentration of 2,4-D in urine (21.3 mg/l) was found in dogs sampled within 2 days after application of the herbicide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) FULL TEXT

Glickman et al., 2004

Glickman, L. T., Raghavan, M., Knapp, D. W., Bonney, P. L., & Dawson, M. H.; “Herbicide exposure and the risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers;” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2004, 224(8), 1290-1297; DOI: 10.2460/javma.2004.224.1290.


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to lawn or garden chemicals was associated with an increased risk of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers. DESIGN: Case-control study.

ANIMALS: 83 Scottish Terriers with TCC (cases) and 83 Scottish Terriers with other health-related conditions (controls).

PROCEDURE: Owners of study dogs completed a written questionnaire pertaining to exposure to lawn or garden chemicals during the year prior to diagnosis of TCC for case dogs and during a comparable period for control dogs.

RESULTS: The risk of TCC was significantly increased among dogs exposed to lawns or gardens treated with both herbicides and insecticides (odds ratio [OR], 7.19) or with herbicides alone (OR, 3.62), but not among dogs exposed to lawns or gardens treated with insecticides alone (OR, 1.62), compared with dogs exposed to untreated lawns. Exposure to lawns or gardens treated with phenoxy herbicides (OR, 4.42) was associated with an increased risk of TCC, compared with exposure to untreated lawns or gardens, but exposure to lawns or gardens treated with nonphenoxy herbicides (OR, 3.49) was not significantly associated with risk of TCC.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that exposure to lawns or gardens treated with herbicides was associated with an increased risk of TCC in Scottish Terriers. Until additional studies are performed to prove or disprove a cause-and-effect relationship, owners of Scottish Terriers should minimize their dogs’ access to lawns or gardens treated with phenoxy herbicides.


Hayes et al., 1991

Hayes, H. M., Tarone, R. E., Cantor, K. P., Jessen, C. R., McCurnin, D. M., & Richardson, R. C.; “Case-control study of canine malignant lymphoma: positive association with dog owner’s use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides;” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1991, 83(17), 1226-1231; DOI: 10.1093/jnci/83.17.1226.


A hospital-based case-control study of companion dogs examined the risk of developing canine malignant lymphoma associated with the use of chemicals in and about the home. Information from a self-administered owner questionnaire and/or a telephone interview of about 491 cases, 466 nontumor controls, and 479 tumor controls indicated that owners in households with dogs that developed malignant lymphoma applied 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicides to their lawn and/or employed commercial lawn care companies to treat their yard significantly more frequently than control owners (odds ratio = 1.3). In addition, the risk of canine malignant lymphoma rose to a twofold excess with four or more yearly owner applications of 2,4-D. The findings in this study are consistent with occupational studies in humans, which have reported modest associations between agricultural exposure to 2,4-D and increased risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, the histology and epidemiology of which are similar to those of canine malignant lymphoma. The present study suggests that human health implications of 2,4-D exposure in the home environment should receive further investigation. FULL TEXT

Karthikraj and Kannan, 2019

Karthikraj, R., & Kannan, K.; “Widespread occurrence of glyphosate in urine from pet dogs and cats in New York State, USA;” Science of the Total Environment, 2019, 659, 790-795; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.454.


Glyphosate is one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States, which has led to its ubiquitous occurrence in food and water and regular detection in human urine at concentrations of 1-10mug/L. Data pertaining to health risks arising from the ingestion of glyphosate are limited and are the subject of much debate, which demands the need for more exposure information for this herbicide. Very little is known about glyphosate exposure in pets. In this study, we determined concentrations of glyphosate (Glyp) and its derivatives, methyl glyphosate (Me-Glyp) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in urine collected from 30 dogs and 30 cats from New York State, USA. Glyp was the most predominant compound found in pet urine followed by AMPA and Me-Glyp. The mean urinary concentration of summation operatorGlyp (sum of Glyp+Me-Glyp+AMPA) in cats (mean: 33.8+/-46.7ng/mL) was 2-fold higher than that in dogs (mean: 16.8+/-24.4ng/mL). Cumulative daily intakes (CDI) of Glyp in dogs and cats estimated from the urinary concentrations were, on average, 0.57 and 1.37mug/kgbw/d, respectively. The exposure doses were two to four orders of magnitude below the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) suggested by several international health organizations for humans. FULL TEXT