Bibliography Tag: female reproductive impacts

Diepietro Mager, 2020

DiPietro Mager, Natalie Ann. (2020). Preconception and Interconception Health and Routine Health Service Use Among Women in a Rural Midwestern County (Doctor of Philosophy), Indiana University.


Advancement of preconception and interconception health is a key element to improve women’s health as well as pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the preconception and interconception health status of rural Midwestern populations in the United States. The primary objective of this study was to determine the preconception and interconception health status as well as behaviors of reproductive age women living in a rural Midwestern area. Secondary objectives were to quantify process measures of health care access and barriers to care, as well as determine disparities in preconception and interconception health status among women in this rural area as compared to statewide estimates. As existing national or state secondary data sources often have limitations in data derived from areas with low population densities or insufficient sample sizes to generate reliable estimates, a cross-sectional study was performed using a 34item survey. Data were collected from February to May 2019 from 315 non-pregnant women ages 18-45 years in a rural county in northwestern Ohio. Nearly all women surveyed had at least one risk factor associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, many of which were modifiable. Nearly half of all respondents reported at least one barrier to receipt of health care services. Women in this rural county fared worse for several preconception and interconception health measures when compared to statewide estimates derived from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and Ohio Pregnancy Assessment Survey data. These findings illustrate the need for continued development of interventions to improve preconception and interconception health for rural women as well as improved methods to capture and analyze data on important subpopulations at risk.

Bloom et al., 2012

Bloom, T. L., Bullock, L. F., & Parsons, L.; “Rural pregnant women’s stressors and priorities for stress reduction;” Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 2012, 33(12), 813-819; DOI: 10.3109/01612840.2012.712087.


Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women’s predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women’s own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions.

Casey et al., 2004

Casey, Michelle M., Blewett, Lynn A., & Call, Kathleen T.; “Providing Health Care to Latino Immigrants: Community-Based Efforts in the Rural Midwest;” American Journal of Public Health, 2004, 94(10), 1709-1711; DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.94.10.1709.


We examined case studies of 3 rural Midwestern communities to assess local health care systems response to rapidly growing Latino populations. Currently, clinics provide free or low-cost care, and schools, public health, social services, and religious organizations connect Latinos to the health care system. However, many unmet health care needs result from lack of health insurance, limited income, and linguistic and cultural barriers. Targeted safety net funding would help meet Latino health care needs in rural communities with limited resources.  FULL TEXT

Askelson et al., 2020

Askelson, N., Ryan, G., Pieper, F., Bash-Brooks, W., Rasmusson, A., Greene, M., & Buckert, A.; “Perspectives on Implementation: Challenges and Successes of a Program Designed to Support Expectant and Parenting Community College Students in Rural, Midwestern State;” Maternal Child Health Journal, 2020, 24(Suppl 2), 152-162; DOI: 10.1007/s10995-020-02879-6.


OBJECTIVES: Expectant and parenting students (EPS) at community colleges are an underserved and often under-resourced group. In a rural, Midwestern state, the department of public health was awarded the Pregnancy Assistance Fund (PAF) grant to assist this population. This paper outlines the results of the implementation evaluation and offers suggestions for programs and evaluators working with this population in the community college setting.

METHODS: We conducted a multicomponent evaluation utilizing quantitative and qualitative methods. Evaluation activities included tracking activities/services, surveys and interviews with participants, and interviews with community college staff implementing grant activities. The research team calculated frequencies for quantitative data and coded qualitative data for themes.

RESULTS: Data from the community colleges and students’ self-reports revealed that EPS most commonly received concrete support from the program, often in the form of stipends or gift cards. Students reported that concrete support was beneficial and helped to relieve financial stress during the semester. Students’ major barriers to participation were lack of knowledge about the program and busy schedules that prevented them from accessing PAF services. Staff reported that difficulty identifying EPS and the short one-year project period were major implementation challenges.

CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: We recommend that community colleges work to identify EPS, use fellow EPS to recruit program participants, and implement programming that works with the students’ schedules.


Harris et al., 2015

Harris, DE, Aboueissa, N Baugh, & Sarton, C; “Impact of rurality on maternal and infant health indicators and outcomes in Maine;” Rural and Remote Health, 2015, 15(3278).


INTRODUCTION: Rural residents may face health challenges related to geographic barriers to care, physician shortages, poverty, lower educational attainment, and other demographic factors. In maternal and child health, these disparities may be evidenced by the health risks and behaviors of new mothers, the health of infants born to these mothers, and the care received by both mothers and infants.

MEHTODS: To determine the impact of rurality on maternal and child health in Maine, USA, 11 years of data (2000–2010) for the state of Maine from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) project were analyzed. PRAMS is a national public health surveillance system that uses questionnaires to survey women who had delivered live infants in the previous 2–4 months. Using a geographic information system, each questionnaire response was assigned a rurality tier (urban, suburban, large rural town, or isolated rural community) based on the rural–urban commuting area code of the town of residence of the mother. Results from the four rurality tiers were compared using the survey procedures in Statistical Analysis Software to adjust for the complex sampling strategy of the PRAMS dataset. Means (for continuous variables) and percentages (for categorical variables) were calculated for each rurality tier, along with 95% confidence intervals. Significant differences between rurality tiers were tested for using F-tests or χ2 tests. If significant differences between rurality tiers existed (p<0.05), specific tiers were judged to be different from each other if their 95% confidence intervals did not overlap.

RESULTS: A total of 12 600 mothers responded to the PRAMS questionnaire during the study period. Compared to mothers from more urban areas, rural mothers were younger (10.5% of mothers from isolated rural areas were teenagers compared to 6.2% of mothers from urban areas), less well educated, less likely to be married, and more likely to live in lower income households (39.6% of isolated rural mothers had household incomes ≤US$20 000/year vs 28.8% of urban mothers). Rural mothers had higher prepregnancy body mass indexes (BMIs; average BMI 26.1 for isolated rural women vs 25.3 for urban women) and were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol (both before and during pregnancy). Compared to mothers from more urban areas, rural mothers were not sure they were pregnant until a later gestational age but received prenatal care just as early and were just as likely to receive prenatal care as early as they wished. There were no differences among rurality tiers in Caesarean section rates, rates of premature births (<37 weeks gestation), or rates of underweight births (<2500 g). However infants born to rural mothers were less likely to be breastfed (52.9% of isolated rural vs 60.9% of urban infants breast fed for ≥8 weeks).

CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, while rural women face significant demographic and behavior challenges, their access to prenatal care, the care they receive while pregnant, and the outcomes of their pregnancies are similar to those of urban women. These results highlight areas where focused pre-pregnancy and prenatal education may improve maternal and child health in rural Maine.

Milesi et al., 2021

Milesi, M. M., Lorenz, V., Durando, M., Rossetti, M. F., & Varayoud, J. “Glyphosate Herbicide: Reproductive Outcomes and Multigenerational Effects.” Frontiers in Endocrinology, 12. 2021; DOI:10.3389/fendo.2021.672532.


Glyphosate base herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely applied pesticides in the world and are mainly used in association with GBH-tolerant crop varieties. Indiscriminate and negligent use of GBHs has promoted the emergence of glyphosate resistant weeds, and consequently the rise in the use of these herbicides. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of all GBHs, is combined with other chemicals known as co-formulants that enhance the herbicide action. Nowadays, the safety of glyphosate and its formulations remain to be a controversial issue, as evidence is not conclusive whether the adverse effects are caused by GBH or glyphosate, and little is known about the contribution of co-formulants to the toxicity of herbicides. Currently, alarmingly increased levels of glyphosate have been detected in different environmental matrixes and in foodstuff, becoming an issue of social concern. Some in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that glyphosate and its formulations exhibit estrogen-like properties, and growing evidence has indicated they may disrupt normal endocrine function, with adverse consequences for reproductive health. Moreover, multigenerational effects have been reported and epigenetic mechanisms have been proved to be involved in the alterations induced by the herbicide. In this review, we provide an overview of: i) the routes and levels of human exposure to GBHs, ii) the potential estrogenic effects of glyphosate and GBHs in cell culture and animal models, iii) their long-term effects on female fertility and mechanisms of action, and iv) the consequences on health of successive generations. FULL TEXT

Mnif et al., 2011

Mnif W, Hassine AI, Bouaziz A, Bartegi A, Thomas O, Roig B. “Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011 Jun;8(6):2265-303. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062265.

ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. FULL TEXT

Ndonwi et al., 2019

Ndonwi EN, Atogho-Tiedeu B, Lontchi-Yimagou E, Shinkafi TS, Nanfa D, Balti EV, Indusmita R, Mahmood A, Katte JC, Mbanya A, Matsha T, Mbanya JC, Shakir A, Sobngwi E. “Gestational Exposure to Pesticides Induces Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Offspring that Persist at Adult Age in an Animal Model.” Toxicological Research, 2019 Jul;35(3):241-248; DOI: 10.5487/TR.2019.35.3.241.


Pesticide exposure may induce biochemical alterations including oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, in the context of developmental origin of health and disease, putative trans-generational effect of exposure to pesticides are insufficiently studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate the biochemical effect of gestational exposure to four pesticides on female Wistar rats and their offspring at adult age. We studied 30 female nulliparous Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group and received distilled water while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received orally pesticide 1 (imidacloprid), pesticide 2 (chlorpyrifos), pesticide 3 (imidacloprid + lambda cyhalothrin) and pesticide 4 (oxamyl) respectively once daily throughout gestation at a dose equivalent to 1/10 lethal dose 50. The mothers were followed up until one month post gestation. The offspring were followed up from birth until adult age (12 weeks). In all animals at each time point we evaluated malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress and liver function enzymes. There was similar variation of total body weight in all the groups during and after gestation. However, Female Wistar rats of the exposed groups had significant alterations in liver SOD (-30.8% to +64.1%), catalase (-38.8% to -85.7%) and GSH (-29.2% to -86.5%) and; kidney catalase (> 100%), GSH (> 100%). Moreover, MDA, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were significantly higher in pesticide exposed rats compared to the control group. Similar alterations in antioxidant enzymes, MDA and liver function enzymes were observed in offspring of treated rats evidenced at weaning and persisting until adult age. Exposure to pesticides causes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in exposed female Wistar rats and their offspring. The persistence in offspring at adult age suggests transgenerational adverse effects. FULL TEXT

Kogevinas, 2021

Kogevinas, M.; “Glyphosate Exposure during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth (More Research Is Needed);” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2021, 129(5), 51301; DOI: 10.1289/EHP9428.


Not Available


Ganesan and Keating, 2020

Ganesan, S., & Keating, A. F.; “Ovarian mitochondrial and oxidative stress proteins are altered by glyphosate exposure in mice;” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2020, 402, 115116; DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2020.115116.


Glyphosate (GLY) usage for weed control is extensive. To investigate ovarian impacts of chronic GLY exposure, female C57BL6 mice were orally administered saline as vehicle control (CT) or GLY at 0.25 (G0.25), 0.5 (G0.5), 1.0 (G1.0), 1.5 (G1.5), or 2 (G2.0) mg/kg for five days per wk. for 20 wks. Feed intake increased (P < .05) in G1.5 and G2.0 mice and body weight increased (P < .05) in G1.0 mice. There was no impact of GLY on estrous cyclicity, nor did GLY affect circulating levels of 17beta-estradiol or progesterone. Exposure to GLY did not impact heart, liver, spleen, kidney or uterus weight. Both ovarian weight and follicle number were increased (P < .05) by G2.0 but not affected at lower GLY concentrations. There were no detectable effects of GLY on ovarian protein abundance of pAKT, AKT, pAKT:AKT, gammaH2AX, STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B, CYP19A, ERA or ERB. Increased (P < .05) abundance of ATM protein was observed at G0.25 but not higher GLY doses. A dose-dependent effect (P < .10) of GLY exposure on ovarian protein abundance as quantified by LC-MS/MS was observed (G0.25-4 increased, 19 decreased; G0.5-5 increased, 25 decreased; G1.0-65 increased, 7 decreased; G1.5-145 increased, 2 decreased; G2.0-159 increased, 4 decreased). Pathway analysis was performed using DAVID and identified glutathione metabolism, metabolic and proteasome pathways as GLY exposure targets. These data indicate that chronic low-level exposure to GLY alters the ovarian proteome and may ultimately impact ovarian function. FULL TEXT