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Bibliography Tag: genotoxicity

Williams et al., 2000

Williams, G. M., Kroes, R., & Munro, I. C.; “Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans;” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2000, 31(2 Pt 1), 117-165; DOI: 10.1006/rtph.1999.1371.


Reviews on the safety of glyphosate and Roundup herbicide that have been conducted by several regulatory agencies and scientific institutions worldwide have concluded that there is no indication of any human health concern. Nevertheless, questions regarding their safety are periodically raised. This review was undertaken to produce a current and comprehensive safety evaluation and risk assessment for humans. It includes assessments of glyphosate, its major breakdown product [aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA)], its Roundup formulations, and the predominant surfactant [polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA)] used in Roundup formulations worldwide. The studies evaluated in this review included those performed for regulatory purposes as well as published research reports. The oral absorption of glyphosate and AMPA is low, and both materials are eliminated essentially unmetabolized. Dermal penetration studies with Roundup showed very low absorption. Experimental evidence has shown that neither glyphosate nor AMPA bioaccumulates in any animal tissue. No significant toxicity occurred in acute, subchronic, and chronic studies. Direct ocular exposure to the concentrated Roundup formulation can result in transient irritation, while normal spray dilutions cause, at most, only minimal effects. The genotoxicity data for glyphosate and Roundup were assessed using a weight-of-evidence approach and standard evaluation criteria. There was no convincing evidence for direct DNA damage in vitro or in vivo, and it was concluded that Roundup and its components do not pose a risk for the production of heritable/somatic mutations in humans. Multiple lifetime feeding studies have failed to demonstrate any tumorigenic potential for glyphosate. Accordingly, it was concluded that glyphosate is noncarcinogenic. Glyphosate, AMPA, and POEA were not teratogenic or developmentally toxic. There were no effects on fertility or reproductive parameters in two multigeneration reproduction studies with glyphosate. Likewise there were no adverse effects in reproductive tissues from animals treated with glyphosate, AMPA, or POEA in chronic and/or subchronic studies. Results from standard studies with these materials also failed to show any effects indicative of endocrine modulation. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of Roundup herbicide does not result in adverse effects on development, reproduction, or endocrine systems in humans and other mammals. For purposes of risk assessment, no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) were identified for all subchronic, chronic, developmental, and reproduction studies with glyphosate, AMPA, and POEA. Margins-of-exposure for chronic risk were calculated for each compound by dividing the lowest applicable NOAEL by worst-case estimates of chronic exposure. Acute risks were assessed by comparison of oral LD50 values to estimated maximum acute human exposure. It was concluded that, under present and expected conditions of use, Roundup herbicide does not pose a health risk to humans.

Balderrama-Carmona et al., 2019

Balderrama-Carmona, A. P., Valenzuela-Rincon, M., Zamora-Alvarez, L. A., Adan-Bante, N. P., Leyva-Soto, L. A., Silva-Beltran, N. P., & Moran-Palacio, E. F.; “Herbicide biomonitoring in agricultural workers in Valle del Mayo, Sonora Mexico;” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-07087-6.


Valle del Mayo is an important agricultural area at the northwest of Mexico where up to 20,000 L of a mix composed of glyphosate and tordon is used in drains and canals. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the cellular damage caused by glyphosate, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and picloram in agricultural workers. Biomonitoring was performed through the quantification of herbicides in urine using HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) to then evaluate the cellular damage in exposed people by means of an evaluation of micronuclei and cellular proliferation in lymphocyte cultures. The urine samples (n = 30) have shown a concentration of up to 10.25 mug/L of picloram and 2.23 mug/L of AMPA; no positive samples for glyphosate were reported. The calculation of the external dose reveals that agricultural workers ingest up to 146 mg/kg/day; however, this concentration does not surpass the limits that are allowed internationally. As for the results for the micronuclei test, 53% of the workers showed cellular damage, and the nuclear division index test reported that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the exposed and the control population, which indicated that the exposure time to pesticides in the people of Valle del Mayo can induce alterations which can cause chronic damage. FULL TEXT

Crump et al., 2020

Crump, K., Crouch, E., Zelterman, D., Crump, C., & Haseman, J.; “Accounting for Multiple Comparisons in Statistical Analysis of the Extensive Bioassay Data on Glyphosate;” Toxicology Science, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfaa039.


Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide worldwide. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed glyphosate cancer bioassays and human studies and declared that the evidence for carcinogenicity of glyphosate is sufficient in experimental animals. We analyzed ten glyphosate rodent bioassays, including those in which IARC found evidence of carcinogenicity, using a multi-response permutation procedure that adjusts for the large number of tumors eligible for statistical testing and provides valid false-positive probabilities. The test statistics for these permutation tests are functions of p-values from a standard test for dose-response trend applied to each specific type of tumor. We evaluated three permutation tests, using as test statistics the smallest p-value from a standard statistical test for dose-response trend and the number of such tests for which the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05 or 0.01. The false-positive probabilities obtained from two implementations of these three permutation tests are: smallest p-value: 0.26, 0.17, p-values </= 0.05: 0.08, 0.12, p-values </= 0.01: 0.06, 0.08. In addition, we found more evidence for negative dose-response trends than positive. Thus, we found no strong evidence that glyphosate is an animal carcinogen. The main cause for the discrepancy between IARC’s finding and ours appears to be that IARC did not account for the large number of tumor responses analyzed and the increased likelihood that several of these would show statistical significance simply by chance. This work provides a more comprehensive analysis of the animal carcinogenicity data for this important herbicide than previously available. FULL TEXT

Dimitrov et al., 2006

Dimitrov, B. D., Gadeva, P. G., Benova, D. K., & Bineva, M. V.; “Comparative genotoxicity of the herbicides Roundup, Stomp and Reglone in plant and mammalian test systems;” Mutagenesis, 2006, 21(6), 375-382; DOI: 10.1093/mutage/gel044.


The genotoxicities of the herbicides Roundup (glyphosate), Stomp (pendimethaline) and Reglone (diquat), were compared in plant (Crepis capillaris L.) and mouse bone marrow test systems using chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. Roundup did not induce chromosomal aberrations or micronuclei in either test system. Reglone also did not induce chromosomal aberrations in either test system; however, it increased micronucleus frequency in both plant cells and mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). The responses of the two test systems to Stomp were quite different. Stomp did not induce chromosomal aberrations in the plant cells, but increased their incidence in mouse cells; Stomp increased the frequency of micronuclei in both test systems. The induction of micronuclei in plant cells may have been due to the spindle-destroying effect of the herbicide, since all concentrations of Stomp produced C-mitoses. The increased chromosomal aberration frequency in mouse bone marrow cells observed at later sampling times after administration of Stomp into animals suggests that the induction of aberrations may be due to biosynthesis of genotoxic metabolites. This conclusion was supported by the coincidence between the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of micronucleated PCEs in mouse cells. These data indicate that plant and animal assays are differentially responsive to some pesticides, and these differences may be due to metabolism and their responses to mitotic spindle disruption. FULL TEXT

Curl et al., 2020

Curl, C. L., Spivak, M., Phinney, R., & Montrose, L.; “Synthetic Pesticides and Health in Vulnerable Populations: Agricultural Workers;” Current Environmental Health Reports, 2020, 7(1), 13-29; DOI: 10.1007/s40572-020-00266-5.


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize epidemiological literature published between May 15, 2018, and May 14, 2019, that examines the relationship between exposure to synthetic pesticides and health of agricultural workers.

RECENT FINDINGS: Current research suggests that exposure to synthetic pesticides may be associated with adverse health outcomes. Agricultural workers represent a potentially vulnerable population, due to a combination of unique social and cultural risk factors as well as exposure to hazards inherent in agricultural work. Pesticide exposure among agricultural workers has been linked to certain cancers, DNA damage, oxidative stress, neurological disorders, and respiratory, metabolic, and thyroid effects.

SUMMARY: This review describes literature suggesting that agricultural workers exposed to synthetic pesticides are at an increased risk of certain cancers and neurological disorders. Recent research on respiratory effects is sparse, and more research is warranted regarding DNA damage, oxidative stress, metabolic outcomes, and thyroid effects. FULL TEXT

Schaden et al., 2020

Schaden, Helmut Burtscher, Clausing, Peter, & Van Scharen, Hans. “Factsheet: Dangerous Confidence in ‘Good Laboratory Practices,'” February 11, 2020, Corporate Europe Observatory and PAN Germany.


Our authorisation system for chemicals is based on the principle that manufacturers must prove, by means of scientifc studies, that their products do not pose unacceptable risks to public health and the environment. It is therefore also the responsibility of manufacturers to commission certifed contract laboratories to carry out the toxicological studies necessary for the approval procedure. As a guarantee against manipulation and falsifcation of these “regulatory” studies, regulatory authorities worldwide rely on the certifed standard of “Good Laboratory Practice” (GLP). This standard provides for strict documentation requirements and regular internal and external controls. However, the current fraud scandal involving a German contract laboratory certifed according to GLP, shows that this trust is unlikely to be justifed. According to reports, GLP studies have been manipulated and falsifed there since 2005.

  • Recent research now shows that LPT has also produced studies that were part of the study package for the EU-wide approval of glyphosate in December 2017: One in seven studies in this package, which was the basis to grant re-approval for glyphosate, came from LPT. These fndings are worrying in two ways: – On the one hand, there is the fundamental question of whether the risk assessments for medicines, pesticides and chemicals based on LPT studies can be trusted.
  •  Even more worrying is the general realisation that laboratories, despite the supposedly “tamper-proof” GLP standard, are apparently able to falsify studies over years and decades without being noticed by the control authorities.

The classifcation of glyphosate as “non-carcinogenic” and “not genotoxic“o is based, among other things, on the European authorities’ full confdence in the GLP system. In the EU assessment proces GLP studies were automatically classifed as reliable; This in stark contrast with the numerous “non-GLP studies” from university research, peer reviewed and published, most of which reported evidence of a genotoxic effect and an increased risk of lymphatic cancer in users of glyphosate, were disqualifed by the authorities as “unreliable“.

The LPT counterfeiting scandal reveals the failure of a regulatory system, that places the commissioning and preparation of studies in the hands of industry. At the same time, it confrms the urgency of a fundamental reform of this system for identifying the risks of chemicals, as called for by the European coalition “Citizens for Science in Pesticide Regulation” in October 2018. FULL TEXT

Cai et al., 2020

Cai, Wenyan, Zhang, Feng, Zhong, Lixin, Chen, Dongya, Guo, Haoran, Zhang, Hengdong, Zhu, Baoli, & Liu, Xin; “Correlation between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to glyphosate-induced reduction of serum cholinesterase: A case-control study of a Chinese population;” Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2020, 162, 23-28; DOI: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.07.006.


Glyphosate (GLP) is one of the most common herbicides worldwide. The serum cholinesterase (ChE) may be affected when exposed to glyphosate. Reduction of serum ChE by herbicides is probably related to cytochrome P450 (CYP450) family polymorphisms. We suspect that the abnormal ChE caused by GLP could be correlated with the CYP family members. To determine whether CYP1B1 (rs1056827 and rs1056836) and CYP1A1 (rs1048943) gene polymorphisms and individual susceptibility to GLP-induced ChE abnormalities were interrelated in the Chinese Han population, we performed this genetic association study on a total of 230 workers previously exposed to GLP, including 115 cases with reduced serum ChE and 115 controls with normal serum ChE. Two even groups of cases and controls were enrolled. The CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in both groups were genotyped using TaqMan. Subjects with the CYP1A1 rs619586 genotypes showed an increased risk of GLP-induced reduction of serum ChE, which was more evident in the following subgroups: female,>35 years old, history of GLP exposure time<10 years and>10 years, nonsmoker and nondrinker. The results show that CYP1A1 rs619586 was significantly associated with the GLP-induced reduction in serum ChE and could be a biomarker of susceptibility for Chinese GLP exposed workers. Because of a large number of people exposed to glyphosate, this study has a significance in protecting their health.  FULL TEXT

Leite et al., 2019

Leite, S. B., Franco de Diana, D. M., Segovia Abreu, J. A., Avalos, D. S., Denis, M. A., Ovelar, C. C., Samaniego Royg, M. J., Thielmann Arbo, B. A., & Corvalan, R.; “DNA damage induced by exposure to pesticides in children of rural areas in Paraguay;” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2019, 150(3), 290-296; DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1497_17.



Chronic exposure to pesticides can damage DNA and lead to cancer, diabetes, respiratory diseases and neurodegenerative and neurodevelopment disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of DNA damage through the comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test in two groups of children, under 10 yr of age living in rural Paraguay and in relation to pesticide exposure.


Two groups of 5 to 10 yr old children were formed; the exposed group (group A, n=43), born and currently living in a community dedicated to family agriculture and surrounded by transgenic soybean crops, and the control group (group B, n=41), born and living in a community dedicated to family agriculture with biological control of pests. For each child, 2000 cells were studied for the MN test and 200 cells for the comet assay.


The comparison between exposed and control children revealed significant differences in biomarkers studied for the measurement of genetic damage (cell death and DNA damage). The median of MN was higher in the exposed group (6 vs. 1) (P <0.001). Binucleated cells (2.9 vs. 0.5, P <0.001); broken eggs (5.5 vs. 1.0, P <0.001); karyorrhexis (6.7 vs. 0.5, P <0.001); kariolysis (14.0 vs. 1.0, P <0.001); pyknosis (7.4 vs. 1.2, P <0.001) and condensed chromatin (25.5 vs. 7.0, P <0.001) were significantly higher in the exposed group. The values of tail length (59.1 vs 37.2 mum); tail moment (TM) (32.8 vs. 14.4 mum); TM olive (15.5 vs. 6); % DNA tail (45.2 vs. 27.6) and % DNA head (54.8 vs. 72.4), were significantly different between the two groups.


In children exposed to pesticides, a greater genotoxic and cytotoxic effect was observed compared to non-exposed children. Our findings suggest that monitoring of genetic toxicity in population exposed to pesticides and agrochemicals should be done.


Lajmanovich et al., 2019

Lajmanovich, R. C., Peltzer, P. M., Attademo, A. M., Martinuzzi, C. S., Simoniello, M. F., Colussi, C. L., Cuzziol Boccioni, A. P., & Sigrist, M.; “First evaluation of novel potential synergistic effects of glyphosate and arsenic mixture on Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles;” Heliyon, 2019, 5(10), e02601; DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02601.


The toxicity of glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) and arsenite (As(III)) as individual toxicants and in mixture (50:50 v/v, GBH-As(III)) was determined in Rhinella arenarum tadpoles during acute (48 h) and chronic assays (22 days). In both types of assays, the levels of enzymatic activity [Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CbE), and Glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and the levels of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine; T3 and thyroxine; T4) were examined. Additionally, the mitotic index (MI) of red blood cells (RBCs) and DNA damage index were calculated for the chronic assay. The results showed that the LC50 values at 48 h were 45.95 mg/L for GBH, 37.32 mg/L for As(III), and 30.31 mg/L for GBH-As(III) (with similar NOEC = 10 mg/L and LOEC = 20 mg/L between the three treatments). In the acute assay, Marking’s additive index (S = 2.72) indicated synergistic toxicity for GBH-As(III). In larvae treated with GBH and As(III) at the NOEC-48h (10 mg/L), AChE activity increased by 36.25% and 33.05% respectively, CbE activity increased by 22.25% and 39.05 % respectively, and GST activity increased by 46.75% with the individual treatment with GBH and by 131.65 % with the GBH-As(III) mixture. Larvae exposed to the GBH-As(III) mixture also showed increased levels of T4 (25.67 %). In the chronic assay at NOEC-48h/8 (1.25 mg/L), As(III) and GBH-As(III) inhibited AChE activity (by 39.46 % and 35.65%, respectively), but did not alter CbE activity. In addition, As(III) highly increased (93.7 %) GST activity. GBH-As(III) increased T3 (97.34%) and T4 (540.93%) levels. Finally, GBH-As(III) increased the MI of RBCs and DNA damage. This study demonstrated strong synergistic toxicity of the GBH-As(III) mixture, negatively altering antioxidant systems and thyroid hormone levels, with consequences on RBC proliferation and DNA damage in treated R. arenarum tadpoles. FULL TEXT

Qiu et al., 2020

Qiu, Shengnan, Fu, Huiyang, Zhou, Ruiying, Yang, Zheng, Bai, Guangdong, & Shi, Baoming; “Toxic effects of glyphosate on intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity and barrier function in weaned piglets;” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 2020, 187; DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109846.


At present, the public is paying more attention to the adverse effects of pesticides on human and animal health and the environment. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum pesticide that is widely used in agricultural production. In this manuscript, the effects of diets containing glyphosate on intestinal morphology, intestinal immune factors, intestinal antioxidant capacity and the mRNA expression associated with the Nrf2 signaling pathway were investigated in weaned piglets. Twenty-eight healthy female hybrid weaned piglets (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly selected with an average weight of 12.24 ± 0.61 kg. Weaned piglets were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg glyphosate for a 35-day feeding trial. We found that glyphosate had no effect on intestinal morphology. In the duodenum, glyphosate increased the activities of CAT and SOD (linear, P < 0.05) and increased the levels of MDA (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). In the duodenum, glyphosate remarkably increased the relative mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and NQO1 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and reduced the relative mRNA expression levels of GPx1, HO-1 and GCLM (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). In the jejunum, glyphosate remarkably increased the relative mRNA expression levels of Nrf2 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of GCLM (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05). Glyphosate increased the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 in the duodenum (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 in the jejunum (linear, P < 0.05). Glyphosate increased the mRNA expression of NF-κB in the jejunum (linear, P = 0.05). Additionally, the results demonstrated that glyphosate linearly decreased the ZO-1 mRNA expression levels in the jejunum and the mRNA expression of claudin-1 in the duodenum (P < 0.05). In the duodenum, glyphosate increased the protein expression levels of Nrf2 (linear, P = 0.025). Overall, glyphosate exposure may result in oxidative stress in the intestines of piglets, which can be alleviated by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and self-detoxification. FULL TEXT

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