Bibliography Tag: insecticides
Rauh, V. A., Perera, F. P., Horton, M. K., Whyatt, R. M., Bansal, R., Hao, X., Liu, J., Barr, D. B., Slotkin, T. A., & Peterson, B. S.; “Brain anomalies in children exposed prenatally to a common organophosphate pesticide;” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012, 109(20), 7871-7876; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1203396109. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22547821.
Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphate insecticide, is associated with neurobehavioral deficits in humans and animal models. We investigated associations between CPF exposure and brain morphology using magnetic resonance imaging in 40 children, 5.9-11.2 y, selected from a nonclinical, representative community-based cohort. Twenty high-exposure children (upper tertile of CPF concentrations in umbilical cord blood) were compared with 20 low-exposure children on cortical surface features; all participants had minimal prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High CPF exposure was associated with enlargement of superior temporal, posterior middle temporal, and inferior postcentral gyri bilaterally, and enlarged superior frontal gyrus, gyrus rectus, cuneus, and precuneus along the mesial wall of the right hemisphere. Group differences were derived from exposure effects on underlying white matter. A significant exposure x IQ interaction was derived from CPF disruption of normal IQ associations with surface measures in low-exposure children. In preliminary analyses, high-exposure children did not show expected sex differences in the right inferior parietal lobule and superior marginal gyrus, and displayed reversal of sex differences in the right mesial superior frontal gyrus, consistent with disruption by CPF of normal behavioral sexual dimorphisms reported in animal models. High-exposure children also showed frontal and parietal cortical thinning, and an inverse dose-response relationship between CPF and cortical thickness. This study reports significant associations of prenatal exposure to a widely used environmental neurotoxicant, at standard use levels, with structural changes in the developing human brain. FULL TEXT
Rauh, Virginia, Arunajadai, Srikesh, Horton, Megan, Perera, Frederica, Hoepner, Lori, Barr, Dana B, & Whyatt, Robin; “Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011, 119(8), 1196-1201; DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1003160.
BACKGROUND: In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age.
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age.
METHODS: In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches.
RESULTS: On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons).
CONCLUSIONS: We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.
Schlappi, D., Kettler, N., Straub, L., Glauser, G., & Neumann, P.; “Long-term effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on ants;” Communications Biology, 2020, 3(1), 335; DOI: 10.1038/s42003-020-1066-2.
The widespread prophylactic usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has a clear impact on non-target organisms. However, the possible effects of long-term exposure on soil-dwelling organisms are still poorly understood especially for social insects with long-living queens. Here, we show that effects of chronic exposure to the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on black garden ant colonies, Lasius niger, become visible before the second overwintering. Queens and workers differed in the residue-ratio of thiamethoxam to its metabolite clothianidin, suggesting that queens may have a superior detoxification system. Even though thiamethoxam did not affect queen mortality, neonicotinoid-exposed colonies showed a reduced number of workers and larvae indicating a trade-off between detoxification and fertility. Since colony size is a key for fitness, our data suggest long-term impacts of neonicotinoids on these organisms. This should be accounted for in future environmental and ecological risk assessments of neonicotinoid applications to prevent irreparable damages to ecosystems. FULL TEXT
Pisa, L. W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L. P., Bonmatin, J. M., Downs, C. A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D. P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C. A., Noome, D. A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J. D., Van der Sluijs, J. P., Van Dyck, H., & Wiemers, M.; “Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates;” Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2015, 22(1), 68-102; DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3471-x.
We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section “other invertebrates” review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large-scale and wide ranging negative biological and ecological impacts on a wide range of non-target invertebrates in terrestrial, aquatic, marine and benthic habitats. FULL TEXT
Tang, J., Wang, W., Jiang, Y., & Chu, W.; “Diazinon exposure produces histological damage, oxidative stress, immune disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio);” Environmental Pollution, 2021, 269, 116129; DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116129.
Diazinon is a common organophosphate pesticide widely used to control parasitic infections in agriculture. Excessive use of diazinon can have adverse effects on the environment and aquatic animal health. In the present study, the toxic effects of diazinon on the histology, antioxidant, innate immune and intestinal microbiota community composition of crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were investigated. The results showed that diazinon at the tested concentration (300 mug/L) induced gill and liver histopathological damages. Hepatic total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by 32.47%, 65.33% and 37.34%, respectively. However, the liver tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 138.83%. The 300 mug/L diazinon significantly (P < 0.05) downregulated the gene expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-kB p100 and IL-8 but had no significant effect TNF-alpha (P = 0.8239). In addition, the results demonstrated that diazinon exposure could affect the intestinal microbiota composition and diversity. Taken together, the results of this study indicated that diazinon exposure can cause damage to crucian carp, induce histopathological damage in gill and liver tissues, oxidative stress in the liver, and innate immune disorders and alter intestinal microbiota composition and diversity.
Zhao, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, G., Han, R., & Xie, X.; “Effects of chlorpyrifos on the gut microbiome and urine metabolome in mouse (Mus musculus);” Chemosphere, 2016, 153, 287-293; DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.055.
In this study, the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the gut microbiome and related urine metabolome in mouse (Mus musculus) were investigated. Mice were exposed to a daily dose of 1 mg kg(-1) bodyweight of CPF for 30 d. As a result, CPF significantly altered the gut microbiota composition in terms of the relative abundance of key microbes. Meanwhile, CPF exposure induced the alterations of urine metabolites related to the metabolism of amino acids, energy, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), phenyl derivatives and bile acids. High correlations were observed between perturbed gut microbiome and altered metabolic profiles. These perturbations finally resulted in intestinal inflammation and abnormal intestinal permeability, which were also confirm by the histologic changes in colon and remarkable increase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and diamine oxidase (DAO) in the serum of CPF-treated mice. Our findings will provide a new perspective to reveal the mechanism of CPF toxicity. FULL TEXT
Sanchez, M. C., Alvarez Sedo, C., Chaufan, G. R., Romanato, M., Da Cuna, R., Lo Nostro, F., Calvo, J. C., & Fontana, V.; “In vitro effects of endosulfan-based insecticides on mammalian sperm;” Toxicology Research, 2018, 7(1), 117-126; DOI: 10.1039/c7tx00251c.
Endosulfan is an organochloride insecticide extensively used in several countries to protect crops from pests. As several studies indicate that endosulfan can affect human and animal development, the aim of this study was to analyse whether sperm parameters and the process of chromatin decondensation could be altered by endosulfan in mice sperm. Spermatozoa from cauda epididymis were obtained from mature male mice and incubated in the presence of two commercial formulations (CFs) of endosulfan (Master(R) and Zebra Ciagro(R)) or the active ingredient (AI) alone. A significant decrease in the percentage motility and viability of spermatozoa with respect to controls was found. In vitro decondensation was performed in the presence of glutathione and heparin. Spermatozoa incubated with the AI, endosulfan Master(R) and endosulfan Zebra Ciagro(R) showed an increase in chromatin decondensation. In addition, the TUNEL assay showed that DNA fragmentation was significantly higher when sperm were incubated with either one of the CFs when compared to the AI or controls. The ultrastructure analysis of sperm cells showed evident changes in the structure of the plasma and acrosome membranes of sperm incubated with endosulfan AI or the CFs. These results suggest that endosulfan can affect sperm integrity and in vitro chromatin decondensation as well as DNA fragmentation. FULL TEXT