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Bibliography Tag: pesticide residues

Benbrook, 2022a

Benbrook, Charles; “Tracking pesticide residues and risk levels in individual samples—insights and applications;” Environmental Sciences Europe, 2022, 34(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12302-022-00636-w.


BACKGROUND: A method is now available to quantify the number of pesticide residues and relative pesticide dietary risks in individual servings of food. The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system combines the results of United States and United Kingdom pesticide residue testing programs with data on food serving sizes and each pesticide’s chronic Reference Dose or Acceptable Daily Intake. Chronic DRI values are a ratio: the amount of residue in a serving of food relative to the maximum amount allowed by regulators.

RESULTS: The DRI system generates individual sample tables reporting the number of residues detected and individual pesticide and aggregate-pesticide DRI values in specific, individual samples of food. It is the first such system to do so worldwide. Output tables produce accurate estimates of real-world dietary risks based on current toxicology data and exposure benchmarks set by regulators. System outputs allow assessment of the distribution of pesticide dietary risks across foods and pesticides and demonstrate that dietary risk levels are highly skewed. A large number of samples pose moderate, low, or very-low risks, and relatively few samples pose high or very-high risks.

CONCLUSIONS: The DRI system provides the food industry, regulators and analysts with a simple, accessible online tool to assess pesticide dietary-risk levels by food, by pesticide, as a function of country of origin, and on food grown on conventional versus organic farms. DRI system output tables show that the number of residues in a sample of food is a consistently poor indicator of dietary risk levels. By identifying the relatively small number of high-risk samples, efforts to mitigate pesticide dietary risks can be targeted where the most worrisome risks are.



Hood et al., 2022

Hood, R. B., Liang, D., Chiu, Y. H., Sandoval-Insausti, H., Chavarro, J. E., Jones, D., Hauser, R., & Gaskins, A. J.; “Pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables and alterations in the serum metabolome of women undergoing infertility treatment;” Environment International, 2022, 160, 107061; DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.107061.


BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure is linked to a myriad of negative health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are less clear. We utilized metabolomics to describe the alterations in the serum metabolome associated with high and low pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables (FVs), the most common route of exposure in humans.

METHODS: This analysis included 171 women undergoing in vitro fertilization who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire and provided a serum sample during controlled ovarian stimulation (2007–2015). FVs were categorized as high or low-to-moderate pesticide residue using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the USDA. We conducted untargeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry and two chromatography columns. We used multivariable generalized linear models to identified metabolic features (p < 0.005) associated with high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake, followed by enriched pathway analysis.

RESULTS: We identified 50 and 109 significant features associated with high pesticide residue FV intake in the C18 negative and HILIC positive columns, respectively. Additionally, we identified 90 and 62 significant features associated with low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake in the two columns, respectively. Four metabolomic pathways were associated with intake of high pesticide residue FVs including those involved in energy, vitamin, and enzyme metabolism. 12 pathways were associated with intake of low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs including cellular receptor, energy, intercellular signaling, lipid, vitamin, and xenobiotic metabolism. One energy pathway was associated with both high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified limited overlap in the pathways associated with intake of high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs, which supports findings of disparate health effects associated with these two exposures. The identified pathways suggest there is a balance between the dietary antioxidant intake associated with FVs intake and heightened oxidative stress as a result of dietary pesticide exposure.


Bajwa & Sandhu, 2014

Bajwa, U., & Sandhu, K. S.; “Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review;” Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2014, 51(2), 201-220; DOI: 10.1007/s13197-011-0499-5.


Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of pesticide. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of preparation, processing and subsequent handling and storage of foods on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article.



Arregui et al., 2004

Arregui, M. C., Lenardon, A., Sanchez, D., Maitre, M. I., Scotta, R., & Enrique, S.; “Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean;” Pest Management Science, 2004, 60(2), 163-166; DOI: 10.1002/ps.775.


The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

Kleter et al., 2011

Kleter, Gijs A, Unsworth, B, & Harris, Caroline A; “The impact of altered herbicide residues in transgenic herbicide-resistant crops on standard setting for herbicide residues;” Pest Management Science, 2011, 67, 1193-1210; DOI: 10.1002/ps.2128.


The global area covered with transgenic (genetically modified) crops has rapidly increased since their introduction in the mid-1990s.Most of these crops have been rendered herbicide resistant, for which it can be envisaged that the modification has an impact on the profile and level of herbicide residues within these crops. In this article, the four main categories of herbicide resistance, including resistance to acetolactate-synthase inhibitors, bromoxynil, glufosinate and glyphosate, are reviewed. The topics considered are the molecular mechanism underlying the herbicide resistance, the nature and levels of the residues formed and their impact on the residue definition and maximum residue limits (MRLs) defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and national authorities. No general conclusions can be drawn concerning the nature and level of residues, which has to be done on a case-by-case basis. International residue definitions and MRLs are still lacking for some herbicide–crop combinations, and harmonisation is therefore recommended. FULL TEXT

Zhang et al., 2017b

Zhang, Ti , Johnson, Eric N., Mueller, Thomas C., & Willenborg, Christian J.; “Early Application of Harvest Aid Herbicides Adversely Impacts Lentil;” Agronomy Journal, 2017, 109(1), 239-248; DOI: 10.2134/agronj2016.07.0419.


Applying harvest aid herbicides can dry down lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) crops evenly and quickly, and can help control late-emerging weeds. However, improper application timing may reduce yield and quality, and leave unacceptable herbicide residues in seed, which can cause commercial issues when marketing lentil. The objective of this research was to determine the response of lentil to various application timings of glyphosate, saflufenacil, and the combination of these two herbicides. A field experiment consisting of a randomized complete block design was run at Saskatoon and Scott, SK, Canada in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to address the objective. Application of harvest aid herbicides before 30% seed moisture content reduced seed yield and thousand seed weight up to 25 and 8%, respectively. Moreover, application timings before 30% seed moisture resulted in lentil seed samples exceeding residue levels of 2.0 and 0.03 mg kg–1 for glyphosate and saflufenacil, respectively. Adding saflufenacil to glyphosate did not reduce glyphosate residue in lentil seed compared to glyphosate applied alone. However, this tank mixture significantly reduced seed residues of saflufenacil and improved crop desiccation compared with either glyphosate or saflufenacil applied alone. Our data lead us to conclude that a tank mix of saflufenacil+glyphosate should be recommended for crop desiccation and pre-harvest weed control in lentil over using either product alone. In addition, it is critical to ensure applications of glyphosate or saflufenacil are not made prior to 30% seed moisture in lentil crops. FULL TEXT

Zhang et al., 2017a

Zhang, Ti, Johnson, Eric N., & Willenborg, Christian J.; “Evaluation of Harvest-Aid Herbicides as Desiccants in Lentil Production;” Weed Technology, 2017, 30(3), 629-638; DOI: 10.1614/wt-d-16-00007.1.


Desiccants are currently used to improve lentil dry-down prior to harvest. Applying desiccants at growth stages prior to maturity may result in reduced crop yield and quality, and leave unacceptable herbicide residues in seeds. There is little information on whether various herbicides applied alone or as a tank-mix with glyphosate have an effect on glyphosate residues in harvested seed. Field trials were conducted at Saskatoon and Scott, Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2012 to 2014 to determine whether additional desiccants applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate improve crop desiccation and reduce the potential for unacceptable glyphosate residue in seed. Glufosinate and diquat tank mixed with glyphosate were the most consistent desiccants, providing optimal crop dry-down and a general reduction in glyphosate seed residues without adverse effects on seed yield and weight. Saflufenacil provided good crop desiccation without yield loss, but failed to reduce glyphosate seed residues consistently. Pyraflufen-ethyl and flumioxazin applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate were found to be inferior options for growers as they exhibited slow and incomplete crop desiccation, and did not decrease glyphosate seed residues. Based on results from this study, growers should apply glufosinate or diquat with preharvest glyphosate to maximize crop and weed desiccation, and minimize glyphosate seed residues. FULL TEXT

Wigfield et al., 1994

Wigfield, Y. Y., Deneault, F., & Fillion, J.; “Residues of glyphosate and its principle metabolite in certain cereals, oilseeds, and pulses grown in Canada, 1990-1992;” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 1994, 53(4), 543-547; DOI: 10.1007/bf00199024.


Glyphosate, sold under the trade names of Roundup R (for ground application) and Vision R (for forestry use), is a non-selective herbicide which is absorbed through the leaves and translocated throughout the whole plant. The herbicide, when applied close to harvest for late season weed control and possible harvest management benefits, can result in the presence of residues throughout the whole plant including the seed coat. In Canada, glyphosate is registered for pre-plant and post-harvest uses and until June 1991, it was not registered for direct application on crops. Diquat, a fast acting herbicide, is registered for desiccation of canola, mustard, field peas, flax, soybeans, and lentils. While diquat is effective as desiccant, it is not particularly effective in controlling perennial weeds and it is not registered for use on cereals. In June 1991, a temporary registration was granted for pre-harvest application on flax for control of quackgrass, seasonlong control of Canada thistle and perennial sow thistle and harvest management by drying down the crops. In June 1992, the same registration was granted for application on certain cereals (wheat and barley), oilseeds (canola/rapeseeds and soybeans) and pulses (peas and lentils), and in June, 1993 it was granted for malting barley. The pre-harvest use may also provide soil conservation benefits by reducing the use of cultivation as a means of weed control. The maximum residue limit (MRL) (Doliner and Stewart, 199 la) when crops are treated with the proposed label directions (single application at the rate of 0.89 kg/ha glyphosate and the time of 7-14 days before harvest) are shown in Table 1. Registration for use on beans has not been granted due to insufficient residue data.

However, because glyphosate is effective as herbicide and provides harvest management benefits, in 1990 questions were raised from Agriculture Canada field inspection staff regarding the potential misuse of the herbicide which at that time was not registered for pre-harvest use on crops. Thus a post-harvest survey was conducted to monitor glyphosate residues in these cereals, oilseeds and pulses grown during 1990-1992 period to check if the registration uses of glyphosate were being followed. This paper presents the 3-year monitoring results comprising 459 samples of 8 different crops grown in 7 different provinces in Canada. FULL TEXT

Pornprom et al., 2010

Pornprom, T., Sukcharoenvipharat, W., & Sansiriphun, D.; “Weed control with pre-emergence herbicides in vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill);” Crop Protection, 2010, 29(7), 684-690; DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.02.003.


Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the early and late rainy seasons in Thailand to evaluate the effect of pre-emergence application of herbicides and determine the herbicide residues on vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill cv. No. 75) production. No visible crop injury was observed after application of alachlor 469 g a.i./ha, clomazone 1080 g a.i./ha, metribuzin 525 g a.i./ha, pendimethalin 1031.25 g a.i./ha, tank-mixed clomazone 960 g a.i./ha þpendimethalin 928 g a.i./ha, or tank-mixed metribuzin 350 g a.i./haþ pendimethalin 928 g a.i./ha. However, acetochlor 1875 g a.i./ha, isoxaflutole 75 g a.i./ha, and oxadiazon 1000 g a.i./ha caused visible crop injury. Plant bioassay of herbicide residues in the soil after harvest showed no phytotoxic effect on baby corn (Zea mays Linn. cv. Suwan 3), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Pijit 1), pak choi (Brassica chinensis Jusl. cv. Chinensis), and soybean (G. max L. Merrill cv. CM 60). Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis showed no significant herbicide residues on crop yield (or MRLs< 0.01 ppm) for all herbicides used in this study. The application of metribuzin at 525 g a.i./ha was sufficient to provide satisfactory full-season control of several weed species and gave the highest crop yield. In addition, pendimethalin at 1031.25 g a.i./ha, and tankmixed metribuzin at 350 g a.i./ha þ pendimethalin at 928 g a.i./ha can provide a similar level of weed control as an alternative to reduce herbicide dosage thereby increasing food and environmental safety in vegetable soybean production. FULL TEXT

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