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Bibliography Tag: pesticide residues

Cessna et al., 1994

Cessna, A. J., Darwent, A. L., Kirkland, K. J., Townley-Smith, L., Harker, K. N., & Lefkovitch, L. P.; “Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in wheat seed and foliage following preharvest applications;” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 1994, 74(3), 653-661; DOI: 10.4141/cjps94-117.


In a 2-yr study at four locations in western Canada, residues of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) were measured in the seed and foliage of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following preharvest applications at rates of 0.45, 0.9 or 1.7 kg acid equivalent ha−1. Herbicide treatments were applied in early August to mid-September at seed moisture contents ranging from 52 to 12%. Glyphosate and AMPA residues in the seed increased as the rate of application increased, and decreased as the seed moisture content at the time of application decreased. However, when the maximum application rate of 1.7 kg ha−1 was sprayed at seed moisture contents of 40% or less, glyphosate residues in the seed were < 5 mg kg−1, the Maximum Residue Level recently established by Health Canada. Glyphosate and AMPA residues in the straw also increased with increasing application rate, but there was no consistent pattern in residues of either chemical with seed moisture content at the time of application. Physiological maturity of the crop, rainfall washoff, and application rate appeared to play important roles in determining the magnitude of glyphosate and AMPA residues in the seed and straw of wheat. Key words: Glyphosate, AMPA, residues, wheat, seed, preharvest application. FULL TEXT

Cessna et al., 2002

Cessna, A. J., Darwent, A. L., Townley-Smith, L., Harker, K. N., & Kirkland, K.; “Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in field pea, barley and flax seed following preharvest applications;” Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 2002, 82(2), 485-489; DOI: 10.4141/p01-094.


Maximum residue levels have been established by Health Canada for seed of several crops treated with preharvest applications of glyphosate, a common practice on the Canadian prairies. Residues of glyphosate and its major metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were determined at crop maturity in flax seed at one site in western Canada and in the seed and straw of field pea and barley at another site following preharvest applications of the herbicide. Glyphosate was applied at rates of 0.45, 0.9 and 1.7 kg ha-1 to each crop in early August to mid-September at four stages of crop development. In all crops, mean residues of glyphosate and AMPA increased with increasing application rate of glyphosate and decreased when the herbicide was applied at later stages of crop development. FULL TEXT

Picchi, 2019

Aimee Pichhi, “Cheerios, Nature Valley cereals contain Roundup ingredient, study finds,” CBS News, June 13, 2019.


CBS This Morning coverage of the EWG report on glyphosate residues in cereals. Full Video

Wang et al., 2018

Wang, M., Zhou, X., Zang, X., Pang, Y., Chang, Q., Wang, C., & Wang, Z., “Determination of pesticides residues in vegetable and fruit samples by solid-phase microextraction with a covalent organic framework as the fiber coating coupled with gas chromatography and electron capture detection,” Journal of Separation Science, 2018, 41(21), 4038-4046. DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201800644.


In this study, a covalent organic framework designated as TpPaNO2 was synthesized by a mechanochemical grinding method and then coated on stainless steel wire by a sol-gel technique to prepare a solid-phase microextraction fiber. The TpPaNO2 fiber based solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection was applied to determine the residues of 11 pesticides (trlfuralln, dicofol, alpha-endosulfan, 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene, nitrofen, beta-endosulfan, 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, bifenthrin, permethrin and fenvalerate) in vegetable and fruit samples. The effects of extraction time, extraction temperature, sample pH, stirring rate and desorption temperature on the extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection for the eleven pesticides were in the range of 0.04-0.25 mug/kg. The recoveries of the eleven pesticides in the vegetable and fruit samples were 81.5-111% with the relative standard deviations less than 11.2%.

Lu et al., 2018

Lu, L., Su, H., Liu, Q., & Li, F., “Development of a Luminescent Dinuclear Ir(III) Complex for Ultrasensitive Determination of Pesticides,” Analytical Chemistry, 2018, 90(19), 11716-11722. DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b03687.


To improve the G-quadruplex specificity of Ir(III) complexes, a novel dinuclear Ir(III) complex (Din Ir(III)-1) was designed and synthesized through connecting two mononuclear Ir(III) complexes via a diphenyl bridge. Din Ir(III)-1 presents 3.4-4.1-fold enhancements for G-quadruplex relative to ssDNA and 4.3-5.3-fold enhancements relative to dsDNA in luminescence intensity, respectively, demonstrating an excellent G-quadruplex selectivity. Ascribed to its superior specificity to G-quadruplex, Din Ir(III)-1 was employed to construct a highly sensitive luminescent pesticides’ detection platform. The detection is based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product-induced DNA conformational transformation and subsequent terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) directed G-quadruplex formation. The assay exhibited a linear response between the emission intensity of Din Ir(III)-1 and the pesticide concentration in the range of 0.5-25 μg/L ( R2 = 0.994), and the limit of analyticdetection for the pesticide was as low as 0.37 μg/L when using aldicarb as the model pesticide. Moreover, this strategy demonstrates good applicability for the pesticide detection in real samples. It is also versatile for the detection of other organophosphate or carbamate pesticides, which have the inhibition ability toward AChE. Therefore, the proposed approach is scalable for practical application in food safety and environmental monitoring fields and will provide promising solutions for the assay of pesticide residues.

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