skip to Main Content

Bibliography Tag: resistant weeds

Alberto et al., 2016

Alberto, D., Serra, A. A., Sulmon, C., Gouesbet, G., & Couee, I.; “Herbicide-related signaling in plants reveals novel insights for herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges;” Science of The Total Environment, 2016, 569-570, 1618-1628; DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.064.


Herbicide impact is usually assessed as the result of a unilinear mode of action on a specific biochemical target with a typical dose-response dynamics. Recent developments in plant molecular signaling and crosstalk between nutritional, hormonal and environmental stress cues are however revealing a more complex picture of inclusive toxicity. Herbicides induce large-scale metabolic and gene-expression effects that go far beyond the expected consequences of unilinear herbicide-target-damage mechanisms. Moreover, groundbreaking studies have revealed that herbicide action and responses strongly interact with hormone signaling pathways, with numerous regulatory protein-kinases and -phosphatases, with metabolic and circadian clock regulators and with oxidative stress signaling pathways. These interactions are likely to result in mechanisms of adjustment that can determine the level of sensitivity or tolerance to a given herbicide or to a mixture of herbicides depending on the environmental and developmental status of the plant. Such regulations can be described as rheostatic and their importance is discussed in relation with herbicide use strategies, environmental risk assessment and global change assessment challenges. FULL TEXT

Patterson et al., 2018

Patterson, E. L., Pettinga, D. J., Ravet, K., Neve, P., & Gaines, T. A.; “Glyphosate Resistance and EPSPS Gene Duplication: Convergent Evolution in Multiple Plant Species;” Journal of Heredity, 2018, 109(2), 117-125; DOI: 10.1093/jhered/esx087.


One of the increasingly widespread mechanisms of resistance to the herbicide glyphosate is copy number variation (CNV) of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene. EPSPS gene duplication has been reported in 8 weed species, ranging from 3 to 5 extra copies to more than 150 extra copies. In the case of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), a section of >300 kb containing EPSPS and many other genes has been replicated and inserted at new loci throughout the genome, resulting in significant increase in total genome size. The replicated sequence contains several classes of mobile genetic elements including helitrons, raising the intriguing possibility of extra-chromosomal replication of the EPSPS-containing sequence. In kochia (Kochia scoparia), from 3 to more than 10 extra EPSPS copies are arranged as a tandem gene duplication at one locus. In the remaining 6 weed species that exhibit EPSPS gene duplication, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of gene duplication or their entire sequence. There is mounting evidence that adaptive gene amplification is an important mode of evolution in the face of intense human-mediated selection pressure. The convergent evolution of CNVs for glyphosate resistance in weeds, through at least 2 different mechanisms, may be indicative of a more general importance for this mechanism of adaptation in plants. CNVs warrant further investigation across plant functional genomics for adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly for adaptive evolution on rapid time scales. FULL TEXT

Shergill et al., 2018

Shergill, Lovreet S., Barlow, Blake R., Bish, Mandy D., & Bradley, Kevin W., “Investigations of 2,4-D and Multiple Herbicide Resistance in a Missouri Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) Population,” Weed Science, 2018, 66(3), 386-394. DOI: 10.1017/wsc.2017.82.


Research was conducted from 2015 to 2017 to investigate the potential for 2,4-D and multiple herbicide resistance in a waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] population from Missouri (designated MO-Ren). In the field, visual control of the MO-Ren population with 0.56 to 4.48 kg 2,4-D ha−1 ranged from 26% to 77% in 2015 and from 15% to 55% in 2016. The MO-Ren population was highly resistant to chlorimuron, with visual control never exceeding 7% either year. Estimates of the 2,4-D dose required to provide 50% visual control (I50) of the MO-Ren population were 1.44 kg ha−1 compared with only 0.47 kg 2,4-D ha−1 for the susceptible population. Based on comparisons to a susceptible population in dose–response experiments, the MO-Ren population was approximately 3-fold resistant to 2,4-D, and 7-, 7-, 22-, and 14-fold resistant to atrazine, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, respectively. Dicamba and glufosinate were the only two herbicides that provided effective control of the MO-Ren population in these experiments. Examinations of multiple herbicide resistance at the individual plant level revealed that 16% of the plants of the MO-Ren population contained genes stacked for six-way herbicide resistance, and only 1% of plants were classified as resistant to a single herbicide (glyphosate). Results from these experiments confirm that the MO-Ren A. tuberculatus population is resistant to 2,4-D, atrazine, chlorimuron, fomesafen, glyphosate, and mesotrione, making this population the third 2,4-D–resistant A. tuberculatus population identified in the United States, and the first population resistant to six different herbicidal modes of action.

Koo et al., 2018

Koo, Dal-Hoe, Molin, William T, Saski, Christopher A, Jiang, Jiming, Putta, Karthik, Jugulam, Mithila, Friebe, Bernd, & Gill, Bikram S, “Extrachromosomal circular DNA-based amplification and transmission of herbicide resistance in crop weed Amaranthus palmeri,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2018, 115(13), 3332-3337. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719354115.


Gene amplification has been observed in many bacteria and eukaryotes as a response to various selective pressures, such as antibiotics, cytotoxic drugs, pesticides, herbicides, and other stressful environmental conditions. An increase in gene copy number is often found as extrachromosomal elements that usually contain autonomously replicating extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules (eccDNAs). Amaranthus palmeri, a crop weed, can develop herbicide resistance to glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] by amplification of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, the molecular target of glyphosate. However, biological questions regarding the source of the amplified EPSPS, the nature of the amplified DNA structures, and mechanisms responsible for maintaining this gene amplification in cells and their inheritance remain unknown. Here, we report that amplified EPSPS copies in glyphosate-resistant (GR) A. palmeri are present in the form of eccDNAs with various conformations. The eccDNAs are transmitted during cell division in mitosis and meiosis to the soma and germ cells and the progeny by an as yet unknown mechanism of tethering to mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. We propose that eccDNAs are one of the components of McClintock’s postulated innate systems [McClintock B (1978) Stadler Genetics Symposium] that can rapidly produce soma variation, amplify EPSPS genes in the sporophyte that are transmitted to germ cells, and modulate rapid glyphosate resistance through genome plasticity and adaptive evolution. FULL TEXT

Hicks et al., 2018

Hicks, Helen L., Comont, David, Coutts, Shaun R., Crook, Laura, Hull, Richard, Norris, Ken, Neve, Paul, Childs, Dylan Z., & Freckleton, Robert P., “The factors driving evolved herbicide resistance at a national scale,” Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2018, 2(3), 529-536. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0470-1.


Repeated use of xenobiotic chemicals has selected for the rapid evolution of resistance, threatening health and food security at a global scale. Strategies for preventing the evolution of resistance include cycling and mixtures of chemicals and diversification of management. We currently lack large-scale studies that evaluate the efficacy of these different strategies for minimizing the evolution of resistance. Here we use a national-scale data set of occurrence of the weed Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) in the United Kingdom to address this. Weed densities are correlated with assays of evolved resistance, supporting the hypothesis that resistance is driving weed abundance at a national scale. Resistance was correlated with the frequency of historical herbicide applications, suggesting that evolution of resistance is primarily driven by intensity of exposure to herbicides, but was unrelated directly to other cultural techniques. We find that populations resistant to one herbicide are likely to show resistance to multiple herbicide classes. Finally, we show that the economic costs of evolved resistance are considerable: loss of control through resistance can double the economic costs of weeds. This research highlights the importance of managing threats to food production and healthcare systems using an evolutionarily informed approach in a proactive not reactive manner.

Harre et al., 2017

Harre, Nick T., Nie, Haozhen, Robertson, Renae R., Johnson, William G., Weller, Stephen C., & Young, Bryan G., “Distribution of Herbicide-Resistant Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) in Indiana and Characterization of Distinct Glyphosate-Resistant Biotypes,” Weed Science, 2017, 65(06), 699-709. DOI: 10.1017/wsc.2017.56.


Giant ragweed is a highly competitive weed that continually threatens crop production systems due to evolved resistance to acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides (ALS-R) and glyphosate (GR). Two biotypes of GR giant ragweed exist and are differentiated by their response to glyphosate, termed here as rapid response (RR) and non–rapid response (NRR). A comparison of data from surveys of Indiana crop fields done in 2006 and 2014 showed that GR giant ragweed has spread from 15% to 39% of Indiana counties and the NRR biotype is the most prevalent. A TaqMan ® single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay was developed to identify ALS-R populations and revealed 47% of GR populations to be ALS-R as well. The magnitude of glyphosate resistance for NRR populations was 4.6 and 5.9 based on GR 50 and LD 50 estimates, respectively. For RR populations, these values were 7.8 to 9.2 for GR 50 estimates and 19.3 to 22.3 for LD 50 estimates. A novel use of the Imaging-PAM fluorometer was developed to discriminate RR plants by assessing photosystem II quantum yield across the entire leaf surface. H 2 O 2 generation in leaves of glyphosate-treated plants was also measured by 3,3′-diaminobenzidine staining and quantified using imagery analysis software. Results show photo-oxidative stress of mature leaves is far greater and occurs more rapidly following glyphosate treatment in RR plants compared with NRR and glyphosate-susceptible plants and is positively associated with glyphosate dose. These results suggest that under continued glyphosate selection pressure, the RR biotype may surpass the NRR biotype as the predominant form of GR giant ragweed in Indiana due to a higher level of glyphosate resistance. Moreover, the differential photo-oxidative stress patterns in response to glyphosate provide evidence of different mechanisms of resistance present in RR and NRR biotypes.

Green, 2018

Green, J. M., “The rise and future of glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops,” Pest Management Science, 2018, 74(5), 1035-1039. DOI: 10.1002/ps.4462.


Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crops had a revolutionary impact on weed management practices, but the epidemic of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds is rapidly decreasing the value of these technologies. In areas that fully adopted glyphosate and GR crops, GR weeds evolved and glyphosate and glyphosate traits now must be combined with other technologies. The chemical company solution is to combine glyphosate with other chemicals, and the seed company solution is to combine glyphosate resistance with other traits. Unfortunately, companies have not discovered a new commercial herbicide mode-of-action for over 30 years and have already developed or are developing traits for all existing herbicide types with high utility. Glyphosate mixtures and glyphosate trait combinations will be the mainstays of weed management for many growers, but are not going to be enough to keep up with the capacity of weeds to evolve resistance. Glufosinate, auxin, HPPD-inhibiting and other herbicide traits, even when combined with glyphosate resistance, are incremental and temporary solutions. Herbicide and seed businesses are not going to be able to support what critics call the chemical and transgenic treadmills for much longer. The long time without the discovery of a new herbicide mode-of-action and the epidemic of resistant weeds is forcing many growers to spend much more to manage weeds and creating a worst of times, best of times predicament for the crop protection and seed industry. (c) 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.  FULL TEXT

Dellaferrera et al., 2018

Dellaferrera, Ignacio, Cortés, Eduardo, Panigo, Elisa, De Prado, Rafael, Christoffoleti, Pedro, & Perreta, Mariel, “First Report of Amaranthus hybridus with Multiple Resistance to 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Glyphosate,” Agronomy, 2018, 8(8). DOI: 10.3390/agronomy8080140.


In many countries, Amaranthus hybridus is a widespread weed in agricultural systems. The high prolificacy and invasive capacity as well as the resistance of some biotypes to herbicides are among the complications of handling this weed. This paper reports on the first A. hybridus biotypes with resistance to auxinic herbicides and multiple resistance to auxinic herbicides and the EPSPs inhibitor, glyphosate. Several dose response assays were carried out to determine and compare sensitivity of six population of A. hybridus to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba. In addition, shikimic acid accumulation and piperonil butoxide effects on 2,4-D and dicamba metabolism were tested in the same populations. The results showed four populations were resistant to dicamba and three of these were also resistant to 2,4-D, while only one population was resistant to glyphosate. The glyphosate-resistant population also showed multiple resistance to auxinic herbicides. Pretreatment with piperonil butoxide (PBO) followed by 2,4-D or dicamba resulted in the death of all individual weeds independent of herbicide or population. FULL TEXT

Davis and Frisvold, 2017

Adam S. Davis, George B. Frisvold, “Are herbicides a once in a century method of weed control?,” Pest Management Science, 2017, 73:11, DOI: 10.1002/ps.443.


The efficacy of any pesticide is an exhaustible resource that can be depleted over time. For decades, the dominant paradigm – that weed mobility is low relative to insect pests and pathogens, that there is an ample stream of new weed control technologies in the commercial pipeline, and that technology suppliers have sufficient economic incentives and market power to delay resistance – supported a laissez faire approach to herbicide resistance management. Earlier market data bolstered the belief that private incentives and voluntary actions were sufficient to manage resistance. Yet, there has been a steady growth in resistant weeds, while no new commercial herbicide modes of action (MOAs) have been discovered in 30 years. Industry has introduced new herbicide tolerant crops to increase the applicability of older MOAs. Yet, many weed species are already resistant to these compounds. Recent trends suggest a paradigm shift whereby herbicide resistance may impose greater costs to farmers, the environment, and taxpayers than earlier believed. In developed countries, herbicides have been the dominant method of weed control for half a century. Over the next half-century, will widespread resistance to multiple MOAs render herbicides obsolete for many major cropping systems? We suggest it would be prudent to consider the implications of such a low-probability, but high-cost development.  FULL TEXT

Gould et al., 2018

Fred Gould, Zachary S. Brown, Jennifer Kuzma, “Wicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide resistance?,” Science, May 18, 2018, 360: 6390, DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3780.


Resistance to insecticides and herbicides has cost billions of U.S. dollars in the agricultural sector and could result in millions of lives lost to insect-vectored diseases. We mostly continue to use pesticides as if resistance is a temporary issue that will be addressed by commercialization of new pesticides with novel modes of action. However, current evidence suggests that insect and weed evolution may outstrip our ability to replace outmoded chemicals and other control mechanisms. To avoid this outcome, we must address the mix of ecological, genetic, economic, and sociopolitical factors that prevent implementation of sustainable pest management practices. We offer an ambitious proposition.  FULL TEXT

Back To Top