Bibliography Tag: crop science

Rezende et al., 2021

Rezende, E.C.N., Carneiro, F.M., de Moraes, J.B. et al. “Trends in science on glyphosate toxicity: a scientometric study.” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 56432–56448 (2021). DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-14556-4


As part of the most used herbicides, glyphosate is the most successful ingredient of agrochemical companies. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate research trends related to the glyphosate toxicity and its main effects on human and environmental health. For this purpose, 443 articles published, from 1995 to 2020, on the platform Web of Science™ Thomson Reuters were selected. The main toxicity results related in literature are genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. The environmental effects come mostly from the contamination of groundwater and soils. Several studies have concluded that herbicide concentrations right below the official safety limits induced toxic effects. The results presented a highlighted harmful effect of glyphosate on both human and environmental health. It has been observed that countries where publish the most about the glyphosate toxicity are great investors in large-scale agriculture. It is important to ponder that these countries are in a route of ecosystem exploitation that includes not only fauna and flora, but also human beings. Unfortunately, science does not provide concise data for these pesticide disapproval in the global consumer market. It is necessary to search sustainable global interest alternatives to increase agriculture production based on peoples’ food sovereignty. FULL TEXT

LaCanne and Lundgren, 2018

LaCanne, C. E., & Lundgren, J. G.; “Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably;” PeerJ, 2018, 6, e4428; DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4428.


Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ, farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results. FULL TEXT

Schipanski et al., 2016

Schipanski, Meagan E., MacDonald, Graham K., Rosenzweig, Steven, Chappell, M. Jahi, Bennett, Elena M., Kerr, Rachel Bezner, Blesh, Jennifer, Crews, Timothy, Drinkwater, Laurie, Lundgren, Jonathan G., & Schnarr, Cassandra; “Realizing Resilient Food Systems;” BioScience, 2016, 66(7), 600-610; DOI: 10.1093/biosci/biw052.


Food systems are under increasing pressure to produce sufficient food for the global population, decrease the environmental impacts of production, and buffer against complex global change. Food security also remains elusive for many populations worldwide. Greater emphasis on food system resilience could reduce these vulnerabilities. We outline integrated strategies that together could foster food system resilience across scales, including (a) integrating gender equity and social justice into food security research and initiatives, (b) increasing the use of ecological processes rather than external inputs for crop production, (c) fostering regionalized food distribution networks and waste reduction, and (d) linking human nutrition and agricultural production policies. Enhancing social–ecological links and fostering adaptive capacity are essential to cope with short-term volatility and longer-term global change pressures. Finally, we highlight regional case studies that have enhanced food system resilience for vulnerable populations. Efforts in these areas could have dramatic impacts on global food system resilience. FULL TEXT

Mariyono, 2008

Mariyono, Joko; “Direct and indirect impacts of integrated pest management on pesticide use: a case of rice agriculture in Java, Indonesia;” Pest Management Science, 2008, 64(10), 1069-1073; DOI:10.1002/ps.1602.


BACKGROUND: Integrated pest management (IPM) technology has been disseminated since 1989 in Indonesia to cut down pesticide use, but the adoption and diffusion of the technology are still debated. This study aims to estimate the models of demand for pesticides and to analyse the impact of IPM technology on pesticide use. Aggregate cross-section time series data from 1990-1998 are used.

RESULTS: The results show that IPM technology reduces the use of pesticides by improving the process of rice production, such that pesticides are more efficiently used. In this case, the IPM technology is not a pest control technique.

CONCLUSION There is an indication that IPM technology has been adopted by farmers. This is evidence that the IPM programme in Indonesia was successful in this area. Copyright ? 2008 Society of Chemical Industry


Sharma and Peshin, 2016

Sharma, Rakesh, & Peshin, Rajinder; “Impact of integrated pest management of vegetables on pesticide use in subtropical Jammu, India;” Crop Protection, 2016, 84, 105-112; DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2016.02.014.


In a study at the subtropical vegetable-growing areas of the state of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), a quasi-experimental research design with a non-equivalent control group was employed to examine the impact of an integrated pest management (IPM) program implemented from 2008 to 2010 on the adoption of non-chemical pest management practices, pesticide use by weight (active ingredient [a.i.]), pesticide use frequency, field use environment impact (FEIQ) and safe handling and application of pesticides by IPM-trained farmers. There was no significant change in adoption of non-chemical practices, other than pheromone traps used by okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) growers. Growers reduced FEIQ by 17.9 per hectare from 2008 to 2010. Pesticide use (a.i.) did not decrease significantly, and frequency decreased significantly by 72.4% only in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis). The vegetable growers did not use protective equipment while handling and applying pesticides thus putting themselves at risk. Implementation of IPM thus needs to be reexamined to significantly reduce pesticide use by weight, treatment frequency and FEIQ.

Oseland et al., 2020

Oseland, E., Bish, M., Steckel, L., & Bradley, K.; “Identification of environmental factors that influence the likelihood of off-target movement of dicamba;” Pest Management Science, 2020, 76(9), 3282-3291; DOI: 10.1002/ps.5887.


BACKGROUND: Commercialization of dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton and subsequent post-emergence applications of dicamba contributed to at least 1.4 and 0.5 million hectares of dicamba-injured soybean in the United States in 2017 and 2018, respectively. This research was initiated to identify environmental factors that contribute to off-target dicamba movement. A survey was conducted following the 2017 growing season to collect information from dicamba applications that remained on the target field and those where dicamba moved. Weather and environmental data surrounding applications were collected and used to identify factors that reduce the likelihood of off-target movement. Soil pH was one factor identified in the model, and field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to validate the model. Three commercially-available dicamba formulations and one formulation currently in development were applied to soil at five distinct pH values. Sensitive soybean was used as a bioassay plant to detect dicamba volatilization.

RESULTS: Wind speeds the day of and following application, nearest water source to the field, soybean production acreage in the county, and soil pH were identified as factors that influence the likelihood for off-target movement. In the field study, when dicamba was applied to pH-adjusted soil and placed under low tunnels for 72 h, dicamba volatility increased when soil pH decreased as the model predicted. Dicamba choline, which is not commercially available, had reduced volatility compared to other formulations tested.

CONCLUSION: Results of this study identified specific factors that contribute to successful and unsuccessful dicamba applications and should be considered prior to applications.

Riter et al., 2020

Riter, L. S., Sall, E. D., Pai, N., Beachum, C. E., & Orr, T. B.; “Quantifying Dicamba Volatility under Field Conditions: Part I, Methodology;” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2020, 68(8), 2277-2285; DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b06451.


Quantitative assessment of the volatility of field applied herbicides requires orchestrated sampling logistics, robust analytical methods, and sophisticated modeling techniques. This manuscript describes a comprehensive system developed to measure dicamba volatility in an agricultural setting. Details about study design, sample collection, analytical chemistry, and flux modeling are described. A key component of the system is the interlaboratory validation of an analytical method for trace level detection (limit of quantitation of 1.0 ng/PUF) of dicamba in polyurethane foam (PUF) air samplers. Validation of field sampling and flux methodologies was conducted in a field trial that demonstrated agreement between predicted and directly measured dicamba air concentrations at a series of off-target locations. This validated system was applied to a field case study on two plots to demonstrate the utility of these methods under typical agricultural conditions. This case study resulted in a time-varying volatile flux profile, which showed that less than 0.2 +/- 0.05% of the applied dicamba was volatilized over the 3-day sampling period. FULL TEXT

Epstein and Zhang, 2014

Epstein, Lynn, & Zhang, Minghua. (2014). The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA. In R. Peshin & D. Pimentel (Eds.), Integrated Pest Management (pp. 173-200): Springer.


Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is often promoted to farmers as a method that can provide the most economical, sustained disease and pest control, but promoted to the public as a method to reduce agricultural pesticide use. California has a public infrastructure for supporting IPM research and implementation, largely through the University of California IPM program. California’s Department of Pesticide Regulation’s Pesticide Use Reports provide a system to track pesticide use state-wide. In practice, IPM in California is extremely pesticide-dependent, particularly in weed control and in agricultural production systems that rely on soil fumigation, such as strawberries. During our study period between 1993 and 2010, California had a decrease in use of 88 % of the highly-used pesticides listed for regulatory concern for human health. However, most of these pesticides were replaced with other chemicals rather than with non-chemical methods. We feature several case studies that illustrate key issues in California IPM: the limited progress in meeting Montreal Protocol guidelines for methyl bromide phase-out due to critical use exemptions for strawberry producers; a successful IPM program to decrease use of dormant-season organophosphates that are important water pollutants; the increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides, which might have a role in the current bee colony collapse disorder; and the limited use of all of the commercialized microbial biocontrol agents except for Bacillus thuringiensis. FULL TEXT

Zhang et al., 2019b

Zhang, J., Huang, Y., Reddy, K. N., & Wang, B.; “Assessing crop damage from dicamba on non-dicamba-tolerant soybean by hyperspectral imaging through machine learning;” Pest Management Science, 2019, 75(12), 3260-3272; DOI: 10.1002/ps.5448.


BACKGROUND: Dicamba effectively controls several broadleaf weeds. The off-target drift of dicamba spray or vapor drift can cause severe injury to susceptible crops, including non-dicamba-tolerant crops. In a field experiment, advanced hyperspectral imaging (HSI) was used to study the spectral response of soybean plants to different dicamba rates, and appropriate spectral features and models for assessing the crop damage from dicamba were developed.

RESULTS: In an experiment with six different dicamba rates, an ordinal spectral variation pattern was observed at both 1 week after treatment (WAT) and 3 WAT. The soybean receiving a dicamba rate >/=0.2X exhibited unrecoverable damage. Two recoverability spectral indices (HDRI and HDNI) were developed based on three optimal wavebands. Based on the Jeffries-Matusita distance metric, Spearman correlation analysis and independent t-test for sensitivity to dicamba spray rates, a number of wavebands and classic spectral features were extracted. The models for quantifying dicamba spray levels were established using the machine learning algorithms of naive Bayes, random forest and support vector machine.

CONCLUSIONS: The spectral response of soybean injury caused by dicamba sprays can be clearly captured by HSI. The recoverability spectral indices developed were able to accurately differentiate the recoverable and unrecoverable damage, with an overall accuracy (OA) higher than 90%. The optimal spectral feature sets were identified for characterizing dicamba spray rates under recoverable and unrecoverable situations. The spectral features plus plant height can yield relatively high accuracy under the recoverable situation (OA = 94%). These results can be of practical importance in weed management. (c) 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Cuyno, 2001

Cuyno, L.; “Economic analysis of environmental benefits of integrated pest management: a Philippine case study;” Agricultural Economics, 2001, 25(2-3), 227-233; DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-0862.2001.tb00203.x.


Health and environmental concerns associated with pesticide use have motivated the development of integrated pest management (IPM) programs around the world. Little empirical work has been completed to estimate the value of the environmental benefits of IPM. This paper provides an approach to evaluate a broad set of such benefits for a vegetable program in the Philippines. Assessments were made of (1) IPM-induced reduction in environmental risks posed by pesticides in onion production in the Central Luzon and (2) willingness to pay to reduce those risks. The latter was based on a contingent valuation (CV) interview survey of 176 farmers. Risks to humans, birds, aquatic species, beneficial insects, and other animals were considered. IPM practices on onions reduced the use of specific pesticides from 25 to 65%, depending on the practice, and the projected adoption of IPM practices varied from 36 to 94%. Estimated economic benefits varied from 231 to 305 pesos per person per cropping season (40 pesos = 1 US$). The aggregate value of environmental benefits for the five villages where the IPM research program was centered was estimated at 150,000 US$ for the 4600 local residents. Assessment of environmental benefits can help in designing public policies and regulations, and in justifying support for publicly funded IPM programs.  FULL TEXT