Bibliography Tag: miscarriage rate

Ford and Schust, 2009

Ford, Holly B., & Schust, Danny J.; “Recurrent pregnancy loss: etiology, diagnosis, and therapy;” Reviews in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2009, 2(2), 76-83.


Spontaneous pregnancy loss is a surprisingly common occurrence, with approximately 15% of all clinically recognized pregnancies resulting in pregnancy failure. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) has been inconsistently defined. When defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20 weeks from the last menstrual period, it affects approximately 1% to 2% of women. This review highlights the current understanding of the various etiologies implicated in RPL, including factors known to be causative, as well as those implicated as possible causative agents. The appropriate diagnostic evaluation, therapy, and prognosis are also addressed. FULL TEXT

Lang and Nuevo-Chiquero, 2012

Lang, K., & Nuevo-Chiquero, A., “Trends in self-reported spontaneous abortions: 1970-2000,” Demography, 2012, 49(3), 989-1009. DOI: 10.1007/s13524-012-0113-0.


Little is known about how the miscarriage rate has changed over the past few decades in the United States. Data from Cycles IV to VI of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to examine trends from 1970 to 2000. After accounting for abortion availability and the characteristics of pregnant women, the rate of reported miscarriages increased by about 1.0% per year. This upward trend is strongest in the first seven weeks and absent after 12 weeks of pregnancy. African American and Hispanic women report lower rates of early miscarriage than do whites. The probability of reporting a miscarriage rises by about 5% per year of completed schooling. The upward trend, especially in early miscarriages, suggests awareness of pregnancy rather than prenatal care to be a key factor in explaining the evolution of self-reported miscarriages. Any beneficial effects of prenatal care on early miscarriage are obscured by this factor. Differences in adoption of early-awareness technology, such as home pregnancy tests, should be taken into account when analyzing results from self-reports or clinical trials relying on awareness of pregnancy in its early weeks. FULL TEXT

Avila-Vazquez et al., 2015

Medardo Avila-Vazquez, Agustina Etchegoyen, Eduardo Maturano and Luciana Ruderman, “Cancer and detrimental reproductive effects in an Argentine agricultural community environmentally exposed to glyphosate,” The Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry, 2015, 15:3, DOI: 10.4024/09VA15A.jbpc.15.03


Argentina utilizes about 200 000 tonnes of glyphosate for its agriculture each year. People living near the fields treated with glyphosate often mention an increase in cancer and reproductive alterations. In Monte Maiz, an agricultural settlement with approximate population 8000, we conducted an environmental test assessing water, soil and particulate material contamination as well as an epidemiological study to detect and locate cases of cancer, abortion and genetic abnormality. The site utilizes annually 650 tonnes of glyphosate applied over an area of 65 000 ha. The glyphosate is concentrated and prepared for dispersal in the settlement. We detected glyphosate in particulate material and grain husks and it was found to be present at an even higher concentration on the ground in the village than in the surrounding rural area. The rate of spontaneous abortion in Monte Maiz is three times higher than the national average and the rate of occurrence of genetic abnormality is about twice the national average. Cancer occurrence is between two and three times the reference values for the entire nation with regard to incidence, prevalence and mortality. Although it is of course impossible to establish direct causality, the indicators that emerge from the correlated variables strongly suggest a public health problem of significant proportions, requiring immediate attention.


Avila-Vazquez et al., 2018

Avila-Vazquez, M., Difilippo, F.S., Lean, B.M., Maturano, E. and Etchegoyen, A., “Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina,” Journal of Environmental Protection, 2018, 9, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.93016.


Argentina annually utilizes 240,000 tones of glyphosate in industrial agriculture and a change in the profile of morbidity is perceived for physicians of agricultural areas; now reproductive disorders seem to prevail. The objective of this study is to determine concurrence of glyphosate exposure and  reproductive disorders in a typical argentine agricultural town (Monte Maíz). An ecological study was developed with an environmental analysis of pollution sources including measurements of glyphosate and other pesticides and a cross-sectional study of spontaneous abortions and congenital abnormalities prevalence. Glyphosate was detected in soil and grain dust and was found to be at an even higher concentration in the village soil than in the rural area; 650 tonnes of glyphosate are used annually in the region and manipulated inner town contaminating the soil and dust in suspension of the town creating an burden of environmental exposure to glyphosate of 79 kg per person per year. We do not find other relevant sources of pollution. The spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities rates are three and two times higher than the national average reported by the national health (10% vs. 3% and 3% – 4.3% vs 1.4% respectively). Our study verified high environmental exposure to glyphosate in association with increased frequencies of reproductive disorders  (spontaneous abortion and congenital abnormalities) in argentine agricultural village, but is unable to make assertions cause-effect. Further studies are required with designs for such purposes. FULL TEXT

Garry et al., 2002a

Garry VF, Harkins M, Lyubimov A, Erickson L, Long L., “Reproductive outcomes in the women of the Red River Valley of the north. I – The spouses of pesticide applicators: pregnancy loss, age at menarche, and exposures to pesticides,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health – Part A, 2002, 65:11.

ABSTRACT: In the current study, there was a modest but significant increase in risk (1.6- to 2-fold) for miscarriages and/or fetal loss occurring throughout the year in the spouses of applicators who use fungicides. There is a surprisingly significant deficit in the number of male children born to the spouses of fungicide applicators. First-trimester miscarriages occur most frequently in the spring, during the time when herbicides are applied. Use of sulfonylurea (odds ratio OR = 2.1), imidizolinone (OR = 2.6) containing herbicides, and the herbicide combination Cheyenne (OR = 2.9) by male applicators was statistically associated with increased miscarriage risk in the spring. Limited survey data from women who are the spouses of applicators did not show major alterations of long-term endocrinologic status (menarche, menopause, endometriosis). With regard to personal pesticide exposures, only women who engaged in pesticide application where there is direct exposure to these products are at demonstrable risk (OR = 1.8) for miscarriage. It was hypothesized that the overall reproductive toxicity observed in this population is, for the greater part, a male-mediated event. Clarification of exposure events leading to reproductive toxicity through direct measurements of exposure in both men and women is needed to resolve this issue. FULL TEXT

Arbuckle et al., 1999

Arbuckle TE, Savitz DA, Mery LS, Curtis KM, “Exposure to phenoxy herbicides and the risk of spontaneous abortion,” Epidemiology, 1999, 10:6.


The Ontario Farm Family Health Study was designed to assess retrospectively the potential adverse effects of exposure to pesticides on pregnancy. Information on the health and life style of approximately 2,000 farm couples, as well as a history of use of pesticides on the farm, was collected by questionnaire. This analysis focuses on pre- and postconception exposure to phenoxy herbicides and the risk of spontaneous abortion using the complete (to date) pregnancy history for each woman. Preconception exposure (from 3 months before conception to the month of conception) was weakly associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion at <20 weeks’ gestation [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.6-1.9]. When the analyses were restricted to spontaneous abortions of <12 weeks, the risk was more than doubled (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0-6.4), but the results were sensitive to the cutpoint used. If the husband did not normally wear protective equipment during application, the crude OR for early spontaneous abortions was 5.0 (95% CI = 0.7-36.2). Exposure to phenoxy herbicides during the first trimester was generally not associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The results suggest a possible role of preconception (possibly paternal) exposures to phenoxy herbicides in the risk of early spontaneous abortions.

Arbuckle et al., 2001

Arbuckle TE, Lin Z, Mery LS., “An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population,” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2001, 109: 8.


The toxicity of pesticides on human reproduction is largely unknown–particularly how mixtures of pesticide products might affect fetal toxicity. The Ontario Farm Family Health Study collected data by questionnaire on the identity and timing of pesticide use on the farm, lifestyle factors, and a complete reproductive history from the farm operator and eligible couples living on the farm. A total of 2,110 women provided information on 3,936 pregnancies, including 395 spontaneous abortions. To explore critical windows of exposure and target sites for toxicity, we examined exposures separately for preconception (3 months before and up to month of conception) and postconception (first trimester) windows and for early (< 12 weeks) and late (12-19 weeks) spontaneous abortions. We observed moderate increases in risk of early abortions for preconception exposures to phenoxy acetic acid herbicides [odds ratio (OR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.1], triazines (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.0), and any herbicide (OR = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). For late abortions, preconception exposure to glyphosate (OR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), thiocarbamates (OR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0), and the miscellaneous class of pesticides (OR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4) was associated with elevated risks. Postconception exposures were generally associated with late spontaneous abortions. Older maternal age (> 34 years of age) was the strongest risk factor for spontaneous abortions, and we observed several interactions between pesticides in the older age group using Classification and Regression Tree analysis. This study shows that timing of exposure and restricting analyses to more homogeneous endpoints are important in characterizing the reproductive toxicity of pesticides.  FULL TEXT