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Bibliography Tag: glyphosate

Kogevinas, 2021

Kogevinas, M.; “Glyphosate Exposure during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth (More Research Is Needed);” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2021, 129(5), 51301; DOI: 10.1289/EHP9428.


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Ganesan and Keating, 2020

Ganesan, S., & Keating, A. F.; “Ovarian mitochondrial and oxidative stress proteins are altered by glyphosate exposure in mice;” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2020, 402, 115116; DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2020.115116.


Glyphosate (GLY) usage for weed control is extensive. To investigate ovarian impacts of chronic GLY exposure, female C57BL6 mice were orally administered saline as vehicle control (CT) or GLY at 0.25 (G0.25), 0.5 (G0.5), 1.0 (G1.0), 1.5 (G1.5), or 2 (G2.0) mg/kg for five days per wk. for 20 wks. Feed intake increased (P < .05) in G1.5 and G2.0 mice and body weight increased (P < .05) in G1.0 mice. There was no impact of GLY on estrous cyclicity, nor did GLY affect circulating levels of 17beta-estradiol or progesterone. Exposure to GLY did not impact heart, liver, spleen, kidney or uterus weight. Both ovarian weight and follicle number were increased (P < .05) by G2.0 but not affected at lower GLY concentrations. There were no detectable effects of GLY on ovarian protein abundance of pAKT, AKT, pAKT:AKT, gammaH2AX, STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B, CYP19A, ERA or ERB. Increased (P < .05) abundance of ATM protein was observed at G0.25 but not higher GLY doses. A dose-dependent effect (P < .10) of GLY exposure on ovarian protein abundance as quantified by LC-MS/MS was observed (G0.25-4 increased, 19 decreased; G0.5-5 increased, 25 decreased; G1.0-65 increased, 7 decreased; G1.5-145 increased, 2 decreased; G2.0-159 increased, 4 decreased). Pathway analysis was performed using DAVID and identified glutathione metabolism, metabolic and proteasome pathways as GLY exposure targets. These data indicate that chronic low-level exposure to GLY alters the ovarian proteome and may ultimately impact ovarian function. FULL TEXT

Franke et al., 2021

Franke, Adrian A., Li, Xingnan, Shvetsov, Yurii B., & Lai, Jennifer F.; “Pilot study on the urinary excretion of the glyphosate metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid and breast cancer risk: The Multiethnic Cohort study;” Environmental Pollution, 2021, 277, 116848; DOI:


Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed female cancer and the second leading cause of death in women in the US, including Hawaii. Accumulating evidence suggests that aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the primary metabolite of the herbicide glyphosate—a probable human carcinogen, may itself be carcinogenic. However, the relationship between urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk in women is unknown. In this pilot study, we investigated the association between pre-diagnostic urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk in a case-control study of 250 predominantly postmenopausal women: 124 cases and 126 healthy controls (individually matched on age, race/ethnicity, urine type, date of urine collection, and fasting status) nested within the Hawaii biospecimen subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort. AMPA was detected in 90% of cases and 84% of controls. The geometric mean of urinary AMPA excretion was nearly 38% higher among cases vs. controls (0.087 vs 0.063 ng AMPA/mg creatinine) after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and BMI. A 4.5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer in the highest vs. lowest quintile of AMPA excretion was observed (ORQ5 vs. Q1: 4.49; 95% CI: 1.46–13.77; ptrend = 0.029). To our knowledge, this is the first study to prospectively examine associations between urinary AMPA excretion and breast cancer risk. Our preliminary findings suggest that AMPA exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk; however, these results require confirmation in a larger population to increase study power and permit careful examinations of race/ethnicity differences.

Coullery et al., 2020

Coullery, R., Pacchioni, A. M., & Rosso, S. B.; “Exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy induces neurobehavioral alterations and downregulation of Wnt5a-CaMKII pathway;” Reproductive Toxicology, 2020, 96, 390-398; DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.08.006.


Glyphosate-based formulations are the most popular herbicide used around the world. These herbicides are widely applied in agriculture to control weeds on genetically modified crops. Although there is much evidence showing that glyphosate-based herbicides induce toxic effect on reproductive and hepatic systems, and also cause oxidative damage on cells, studies from recent years revealed that the nervous system may represent a key target for their toxicity. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of glyphosate (without adjuvants) in neonate rats after gestational exposure. Particularly, we examined whether glyphosate during gestation affected the nervous system function at early development. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated with 24 or 35mg/kg of pure glyphosate every 48h and neurobehavioral studies were performed. Our results indicated that gestational exposure to glyphosate induced changes in reflexes development, motor activity and cognitive function, in a dose-dependent manner. To go further, we evaluated whether prenatal exposure to glyphosate affected the Ca(+2)-mediated Wnt non-canonical signaling pathway. Results indicated that embryos exposed to glyphosate showed an inhibition of Wnt5a-CaMKII signaling pathway, an essential cascade controlling the formation and integration of neural circuits. Taken together, these findings suggest that gestational exposure to glyphosate leads to a downregulation of Wnt/Ca(+2) pathway that could induce a developmental neurotoxicity evidenced by deficits at behavioral and cognitive levels in rat pups. FULL TEXT

Mesnage et al., 2021B

Mesnage, R., Teixeira, M., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ibragim, M., Ducarmon, Q. R., Zwittink, R. D., Amiel, C., Panoff, J. M., Bourne, E., Savage, E., Mein, C. A., Belpoggi, F., & Antoniou, M. N.; “Multi-omics phenotyping of the gut-liver axis reveals metabolic perturbations from a low-dose pesticide mixture in rats;” Communications Biology, 2021, 4(1), 471; DOI: 10.1038/s42003-021-01990-w.


Health effects of pesticides are not always accurately detected using the current battery of regulatory toxicity tests. We compared standard histopathology and serum biochemistry measures and multi-omics analyses in a subchronic toxicity test of a mixture of six pesticides frequently detected in foodstuffs (azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorpyrifos, glyphosate, imidacloprid and thiabendazole) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Analysis of water and feed consumption, body weight, histopathology and serum biochemistry showed little effect. Contrastingly, serum and caecum metabolomics revealed that nicotinamide and tryptophan metabolism were affected, which suggested activation of an oxidative stress response. This was not reflected by gut microbial community composition changes evaluated by shotgun metagenomics. Transcriptomics of the liver showed that 257 genes had their expression changed. Gene functions affected included the regulation of response to steroid hormones and the activation of stress response pathways. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of the same liver samples showed that 4,255 CpG sites were differentially methylated. Overall, we demonstrated that in-depth molecular profiling in laboratory animals exposed to low concentrations of pesticides allows the detection of metabolic perturbations that would remain undetected by standard regulatory biochemical measures and which could thus improve the predictability of health risks from exposure to chemical pollutants. FULL TEXT

Gorga et al., 2021

Gorga, A., Rindone, G. M., Centola, C. L., Sobarzo, C. M., Pellizzari, E. H., Camberos, M. D. C., Marin-Briggiler, C. I., Cohen, D. J., Riera, M. F., Galardo, M. N., & Meroni, S. B.; “Low Doses of Glyphosate/Roundup Alter Blood-Testis Barrier Integrity in Juvenile Rats;” Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2021, 12, 615678; DOI: 10.3389/fendo.2021.615678.


It has been postulated that glyphosate (G) or its commercial formulation Roundup (R) might lead to male fertility impairment. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of G or R treatment of juvenile male rats on blood-testis barrier function and on adult male sperm production. Pups were randomly assigned to the following groups: control group (C), receiving water; G2 and G50 groups, receiving 2 and 50 mg/kg/day G respectively; and R2 and R50 groups receiving 2 and 50 mg/kg/day R respectively. Treatments were performed orally from postnatal day (PND) 14 to 30, period of life that is essential to complete a functional blood-testis barrier. Evaluation was done on PND 31. No differences in body and testis weight were observed between groups. Testis histological analysis showed disorganized seminiferous epithelium, with apparent low cellular adhesion in treated animals. Blood-testis barrier permeability to a biotin tracer was examined. A significant increase in permeable tubules was observed in treated groups. To evaluate possible mechanisms that could explain the effects on blood-testis barrier permeability, intratesticular testosterone levels, androgen receptor expression, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the expression of intercellular junction proteins (claudin11, occludin, ZO-1, connexin43, 46, and 50 which are components of the blood-testis barrier) were examined. No modifications in the above-mentioned parameters were detected. To evaluate whether juvenile exposure to G and R could have consequences during adulthood, a set of animals of the R50 group was allowed to grow up until PND 90. Histological analysis showed that control and R50 groups had normal cellular associations and complete spermatogenesis. Also, blood-testis barrier function was recovered and testicular weight, daily sperm production, and epididymal sperm motility and morphology did not seem to be modified by juvenile treatment. In conclusion, the results presented herein show that continuous exposure to low doses of G or R alters blood-testis barrier permeability in juvenile rats. However, considering that adult animals treated during the juvenile stage showed no differences in daily sperm production compared with control animals, it is feasible to think that blood-testis barrier impairment is a reversible phenomenon. More studies are needed to determine possible damage in the reproductive function of human juvenile populations exposed to low doses of G or R. FULL TEXT

Rueda-Ruzafa et al., 2019

Rueda-Ruzafa, L., Cruz, F., Roman, P., & Cardona, D.; “Gut microbiota and neurological effects of glyphosate;” NeuroToxicology, 2019, 75, 1-8; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuro.2019.08.006.


There are currently various concerns regarding certain environmental toxins and the possible impact they can have on developmental diseases. Glyphosate (Gly) is the most utilised herbicide in agriculture, although its widespread use is generating controversy in the scientific world because of its probable carcinogenic effect on human cells. Gly performs as an inhibitor of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phospate synthase (EPSP synthase), not only in plants, but also in bacteria. An inhibiting effect on EPSP synthase from intestinal microbiota has been reported, affecting mainly beneficial bacteria. To the contrary, Clostridium spp. and Salmonella strains are shown to be resistant to Gly. Consequently, researchers have suggested that Gly can cause dysbiosis, a phenomenon which is characterised by an imbalance between beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. The overgrowth of bacteria such as clostridia generates high levels of noxious metabolites in the brain, which can contribute to the development of neurological deviations. This work reviews the impact of Gly-induced intestinal dysbiosis on the central nervous system, focusing on emotional, neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. A wide variety of factors were investigated in relation to brain-related changes, including highlighting genetic abnormalities, pregnancy-associated problems, diet, infections, vaccines and heavy metals. However, more studies are required to determine the implication of the most internationally used herbicide, Gly, in behavioural disorders. FULL TEXT

Leino et al., 2020

Leino, L., Tall, T., Helander, M., Saloniemi, I., Saikkonen, K., Ruuskanen, S., & Puigbo, P.; “Classification of the glyphosate target enzyme (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) for assessing sensitivity of organisms to the herbicide;” Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020, 124556; DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124556.


Glyphosate is the most common broad-spectrum herbicide. It targets the key enzyme of the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), which synthesizes three essential aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan) in plants. Because the shikimate pathway is also found in many prokaryotes and fungi, the widespread use of glyphosate may have unsuspected impacts on the diversity and composition of microbial communities, including the human gut microbiome. Here, we introduce the first bioinformatics method to assess the potential sensitivity of organisms to glyphosate based on the type of EPSPS enzyme. We have precomputed a dataset of EPSPS sequences from thousands of species that will be an invaluable resource to advancing the research field. This novel methodology can classify sequences from nearly 90% of eukaryotes and >80% of prokaryotes. A conservative estimate from our results shows that 54% of species in the core human gut microbiome are sensitive to glyphosate. FULL TEXT

Mesnage et al., 2021A

Mesnage, R, Teixeira, M, Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ducarmon, QR, Zwittink, RD, Mazzacuva, F, Caldwell, A, Halket, J, Amiel, C., Panoff, J. , Belpoggi, F., & Antoniou, MN; “Use of shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics to evaluate the impact of glyphosate or Roundup MON 52276 on the gut microbiota and serum metabolome of Sprague-Dawley rats;” Environmental Health Perspectives, 2021 (in press); DOI: 10.1289/EHP6990.


BACKGROUND: There is intense debate on whether glyphosate can inhibit the shikimate pathway of gastrointestinal microorganisms, with potential health implications.

OBJECTIVES: We tested whether glyphosate or its representative EU herbicide formulation Roundup MON 52276 affects the rat gut microbiome.

METHODS: We combined cecal microbiome shotgun metagenomics with serum and cecum metabolomics to assess the effects of glyphosate [0.5, 50, 175 mg=kg body weight (BW) per day] or MON 52276 at the same glyphosate-equivalent doses, in a 90-d toxicity test in rats.

RESULTS: Glyphosate and MON 52276 treatment resulted in ceca accumulation of shikimic acid and 3-dehydroshikimic acid, suggesting inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase of the shikimate pathway in the gut microbiome. Cysteinylglycine, γ-glutamylglutamine, and valylglycine levels were elevated in the cecal microbiome following glyphosate and MON 52276 treatments. Altered cecum metabolites were not differentially expressed in serum, suggesting that the glyphosate and MON 52276 impact on gut microbial metabolism had limited consequences on physiological biochemistry. Serum metabolites differentially expressed with glyphosate treatment were associated with nicotinamide, branched-chain amino acid, methionine, cysteine, and taurine metabolism, indicative of a response to oxidative stress. MON 52276 had similar, but more pronounced, effects than glyphosate on the serum metabolome. Shotgun metagenomics of the cecum showed that treatment with glyphosate and MON 52276 resulted in higher levels of Eggerthella spp., Shinella zoogleoides, Acinetobacter johnsonii, and Akkermansia muciniphila. Shinella zoogleoides was higher only with MON 52276 exposure. In vitro culture assays with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus strains showed that Roundup GT plus inhibited growth at concentrations at which MON 52276 and glyphosate had no effect.

DISCUSSION: Our study highlights the power of multi-omics approaches to investigate the toxic effects of pesticides. Multi-omics revealed that glyphosate and MON 52276 inhibited the shikimate pathway in the rat gut microbiome. Our findings could be used to develop biomarkers for epidemiological studies aimed at evaluating the effects of glyphosate herbicides on humans FULL TEXT.

Zhang et al., 2021

Zhang, H., Liu, J., Wang, L., & Zhai, Z.; “Glyphosate escalates horizontal transfer of conjugative plasmid harboring antibiotic resistance genes;” Bioengineered, 2021, 12(1), 63-69; DOI: 10.1080/21655979.2020.1862995.


Glyphosate has been frequently detected in water environments because of the wide use for controlling weed in farm lands and urban areas. Presently, the focus of the majority of studies is placed on the toxicity of glyphosate on humans and animals. However, the effects of glyphosate on horizontal transfer of conjugative plasmid carrying antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) are largely unknown. Here, we explored the ability and potential mechanism of glyphosate for accelerating horizontal transfer of conjugative plasmid-mediated ARG. The results showed that glyphosate can effectively boost horizontal transfer rate of conjugative plasmid carrying ARG. The possible mechanism analysis demonstrated that over-production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species effectively regulated expression levels of bacterial outer membrane protein and conjugative transfer-related genes, thereby resulting into elevated horizontal transfer rate of plasmid-mediated ARG. In conclusion, this study casts new understanding into the biological effects of glyphosate on ARG. FULL TEXT

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