Bibliography Tag: pesticide exposure

Kutz et al., 1992

Kutz, F. W., Cook, B. T., Carter-Pokras, O. D., Brody, D., & Murphy, R. S.; “Selected pesticide residues and metabolites in urine from a survey of the U.S. general population;” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1992, 37(2), 277-291; DOI: 10.1080/15287399209531670.

ABSTRACT:

Residues of toxic chemicals in human tissues and fluids can be important indicators of exposure. Urine collected from a subsample of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was analyzed for organochlorine, organophosphorus, and chlorophenoxy pesticides or their metabolites. Urine concentration was also measured. The most frequently occurring residue in urine was pentachlorophenol (PCP), found in quantifiable concentrations in 71.6% of the general population with an estimated geometric mean level of 6.3 ng/ml. Percent quantifiable levels of PCP were found to be highest among males. Quantifiable concentrations of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (5.8%), 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (3.4%), para-nitrophenol (2.4%), dicamba (1.4%), malathion dicarboxylic acid (0.5%), malathion alpha-monocarboxylic acid (1.1%), and 2,4-D (0.3%) were found, but at much lower frequencies. No quantifiable levels of 2,4,5-T or silvex were found. Preliminary analyses showed an apparent relationship between residue concentration and two measures of urine concentration (osmolality and creatinine). A large segment of the general population of the United States experienced exposure to certain pesticides, including some considered biodegradable, during the years 1976-1980. FULL TEXT


Benbrook, 2022a

Benbrook, Charles; “Tracking pesticide residues and risk levels in individual samples—insights and applications;” Environmental Sciences Europe, 2022, 34(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12302-022-00636-w.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: A method is now available to quantify the number of pesticide residues and relative pesticide dietary risks in individual servings of food. The Dietary Risk Index (DRI) system combines the results of United States and United Kingdom pesticide residue testing programs with data on food serving sizes and each pesticide’s chronic Reference Dose or Acceptable Daily Intake. Chronic DRI values are a ratio: the amount of residue in a serving of food relative to the maximum amount allowed by regulators.

RESULTS: The DRI system generates individual sample tables reporting the number of residues detected and individual pesticide and aggregate-pesticide DRI values in specific, individual samples of food. It is the first such system to do so worldwide. Output tables produce accurate estimates of real-world dietary risks based on current toxicology data and exposure benchmarks set by regulators. System outputs allow assessment of the distribution of pesticide dietary risks across foods and pesticides and demonstrate that dietary risk levels are highly skewed. A large number of samples pose moderate, low, or very-low risks, and relatively few samples pose high or very-high risks.

CONCLUSIONS: The DRI system provides the food industry, regulators and analysts with a simple, accessible online tool to assess pesticide dietary-risk levels by food, by pesticide, as a function of country of origin, and on food grown on conventional versus organic farms. DRI system output tables show that the number of residues in a sample of food is a consistently poor indicator of dietary risk levels. By identifying the relatively small number of high-risk samples, efforts to mitigate pesticide dietary risks can be targeted where the most worrisome risks are.

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Freisthler et al., 2022

Freisthler, Marlaina S., Robbins, C. Rebecca, Benbrook, Charles M., Young, Heather A., Haas, David M., Winchester, Paul D., & Perry, Melissa J.; “Association between increasing agricultural use of 2,4-D and population biomarkers of exposure: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2014;” Environmental Health, 2022, 21(1); DOI: 10.1186/s12940-021-00815-x.

ABSTRACT:

BACKGROUND: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is one of the most extensively used herbicides in the United States. In 2012, 2,4-D was the most widely used herbicide in non-agricultural settings and the fifth most heavily applied pesticide in the US agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to examine trends in 2,4-D urinary biomarker concentrations to determine whether increases in 2,4-D application in agriculture are associated with increases in biomonitoring levels of urine 2,4-D.

METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with available urine 2,4-D biomarker measurements from survey cycles between 2001 and 2014 were utilized. Urine 2,4-D values were dichotomized using the highest limit of detection (LOD) across all cycles (0.40 mug/L or 0.4 ppb). Agricultural use of 2,4-D was estimated by compiling publicly available federal and private pesticide application data. Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were fitted to evaluate the association between agricultural use of 2,4-D and urine 2,4-D level above the dichotomization threshold.

RESULTS: Of the 14,395 participants included in the study, 4681 (32.5%) had urine 2,4-D levels above the dichotomization threshold. The frequency of participants with high 2,4-D levels increased significantly (p < .0001), from a low of 17.1% in 2001-2002 to a high of 39.6% in 2011-2012. The adjusted odds of high urinary 2,4-D concentrations associated with 2,4-D agricultural use (per ten million pounds applied) was 2.268 (95% CI: 1.709, 3.009). Children ages 6-11 years (n = 2288) had 2.1 times higher odds of having high 2,4-D urinary concentrations compared to participants aged 20-59 years. Women of childbearing age (age 20-44 years) (n = 2172) had 1.85 times higher odds than men of the same age.

CONCLUSIONS: Agricultural use of 2,4-D has increased substantially from a low point in 2002 and it is predicted to increase further in the coming decade. Because increasing use is likely to increase population level exposures, the associations seen here between 2,4-D crop application and biomonitoring levels require focused biomonitoring and epidemiological evaluation to determine the extent to which rising use and exposures cause adverse health outcomes among vulnerable populations (particularly children and women of childbearing age) and highly exposed individuals (farmers, other herbicide applicators, and their families).

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Hood et al., 2022

Hood, R. B., Liang, D., Chiu, Y. H., Sandoval-Insausti, H., Chavarro, J. E., Jones, D., Hauser, R., & Gaskins, A. J.; “Pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables and alterations in the serum metabolome of women undergoing infertility treatment;” Environment International, 2022, 160, 107061; DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.107061.

ABSTACT:

BACKGROUND: Pesticide exposure is linked to a myriad of negative health effects; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations are less clear. We utilized metabolomics to describe the alterations in the serum metabolome associated with high and low pesticide residue intake from fruits and vegetables (FVs), the most common route of exposure in humans.

METHODS: This analysis included 171 women undergoing in vitro fertilization who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire and provided a serum sample during controlled ovarian stimulation (2007–2015). FVs were categorized as high or low-to-moderate pesticide residue using a validated method based on pesticide surveillance data from the USDA. We conducted untargeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry and two chromatography columns. We used multivariable generalized linear models to identified metabolic features (p < 0.005) associated with high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake, followed by enriched pathway analysis.

RESULTS: We identified 50 and 109 significant features associated with high pesticide residue FV intake in the C18 negative and HILIC positive columns, respectively. Additionally, we identified 90 and 62 significant features associated with low-to-moderate pesticide residue FV intake in the two columns, respectively. Four metabolomic pathways were associated with intake of high pesticide residue FVs including those involved in energy, vitamin, and enzyme metabolism. 12 pathways were associated with intake of low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs including cellular receptor, energy, intercellular signaling, lipid, vitamin, and xenobiotic metabolism. One energy pathway was associated with both high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified limited overlap in the pathways associated with intake of high and low-to-moderate pesticide residue FVs, which supports findings of disparate health effects associated with these two exposures. The identified pathways suggest there is a balance between the dietary antioxidant intake associated with FVs intake and heightened oxidative stress as a result of dietary pesticide exposure.

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Agrochemicals, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice in U.S. History

Porter, M. Jayson; Agrochemicals, Environmental Racism, and Environmental Justice in U.S. History. Northwestern University, The Organic Center (2022).

INTRODUCTION:

In theory, pesticides should have the toxicity to deter pests without harming plants or people. However, a closer look at pesticide history in the United States reveals an enduring legacy of environmental racism against communities of color and their collective action for environmental justice. Humans have harnessed the toxicity of chemicals to kill agricultural insects for millennia. However, the rapid proliferation of modern agrochemicals between 1870-1914 increased how much agriculture itself could hurt places and people. The burden of protecting people and places has always fallen on communities rather than governments and institutions.

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Buckley et al., 2022

Jessie P. Buckley, Jordan R. Kuiper, Deborah H. Bennett, Emily S. Barrett, Tracy Bastain, Carrie V. Breton, Sridhar Chinthakindi, Anne L. Dunlop, Shohreh F. Farzan, Julie B. Herbstman, Margaret R. Karagas, Carmen J. Marsit, John D. Meeker, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Thomas G. O’Connor, Megan E. Romano, Susan Schantz, Rebecca J. Schmidt, Deborah J. Watkins, Hongkai Zhu, Edo D. Pellizzari, Kurunthachalam Kannan, and Tracey J. Woodruff. “Exposure to Contemporary and Emerging Chemicals in Commerce among Pregnant Women in the United States: The Environmental influences on Child Health Outcome (ECHO) Program.” Environmental Science & Technology (2022) 56 (10), 6560-6573 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.1c08942.
ABSTRACT:
Prenatal chemical exposures can influence maternal and child health; however, few industrial chemicals are routinely biomonitored. We assessed an extensive panel of contemporary and emerging chemicals in 171 pregnant women across the United States (U.S.) and Puerto Rico in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program. We simultaneously measured urinary concentrations of 89 analytes (103 total chemicals representing 73 parent compounds) in nine chemical groups: bactericides, benzophenones, bisphenols, fungicides and herbicides, insecticides, organophosphate esters (OPEs), parabens, phthalates/alternative plasticizers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We estimated associations of creatinine-adjusted concentrations with sociodemographic and specimen characteristics. Among our diverse prenatal population (60% non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic), we detected 73 of 89 analytes in ≥1 participant and 36 in >50% of participants. Five analytes not currently included in the U.S. biomonitoring were detected in ≥90% of samples: benzophenone-1, thiamethoxam, mono-2-(propyl-6-carboxy-hexyl) phthalate, monocarboxy isooctyl phthalate, and monohydroxy-iso-decyl phthalate. Many analyte concentrations were higher among women of Hispanic ethnicity compared to those of non-Hispanic White women. Concentrations of certain chemicals decreased with the calendar year, whereas concentrations of their replacements increased. Our largest study to date identified widespread exposures to prevalent and understudied chemicals in a diverse sample of pregnant women in the U.S.

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Donley et al., 2022

Donley, N., Bullard, R.D., Economos, J. et al. “Pesticides and environmental injustice in the USA: root causes, current regulatory reinforcement and a path forward”. BMC Public Health 22, 708 (2022). DOI: 10.1186/s12889-022-13057-4

ABSTRACT:

Many environmental pollutants are known to have disproportionate effects on Black, Indigenous and People of Color (BIPOC) as well as communities of low-income and wealth. The reasons for these disproportionate effects are complex and involve hundreds of years of systematic oppression kept in place through structural racism and classism in the USA. Here we analyze the available literature and existing datasets to determine the extent to which disparities in exposure and harm exist for one of the most widespread pollutants in the world – pesticides. Our objective was to identify and discuss not only the historical injustices that have led to these disparities, but also the current laws, policies and regulatory practices that perpetuate them to this day with the ultimate goal of proposing achievable solutions. Disparities in exposures and harms from pesticides are widespread, impacting BIPOC and low-income communities in both rural and urban settings and occurring throughout the entire lifecycle of the pesticide from production to end-use. These disparities are being perpetuated by current laws and regulations through 1) a pesticide safety double standard, 2) inadequate worker protections, and 3) export of dangerous pesticides to developing countries. Racial, ethnic and income disparities are also maintained through policies and regulatory practices that 4) fail to implement environmental justice Executive Orders, 5) fail to account for unintended pesticide use or provide adequate training and support, 6) fail to effectively monitor and follow-up with vulnerable communities post-approval, and 7) fail to implement essential protections for children. Here we’ve identified federal laws, regulations, policies, and practices that allow for disparities in pesticide exposure and harm to remain entrenched in everyday life for environmental justice communities. This is not simply a pesticides issue, but a broader public health and civil rights issue. The true fix is to shift the USA to a more just system based on the Precautionary Principle to prevent harmful pollution exposure to everyone, regardless of skin tone or income. However, there are actions that can be taken within our existing framework in the short term to make our unjust regulatory system work better for everyone.  FULL TEXT


Nomura et al., 2022

Nomura, H., Hamada, R., Wada, K., Saito, I., Nishihara, N., Kitahara, Y., Watanabe, S., Nakane, K., Nagata, C., Kondo, T., Kamijima, M., Ueyama, J.; “Temporal trend and cross-sectional characterization of urinary concentrations of glyphosate in Japanese children from 2006 to 2015;” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2022, 242, 113963; DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2022.113963.

ABSTRACT:

Background Over the past two decades, domestic shipments of glyphosate (Gly), in the form of an ionic salt, have been increasing steadily in Japan. This increase has raising concerns about the effects of chemical exposure on children. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified Gly as a “probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A)” in 2015. The purpose of the current study was to analyze Gly in urine samples of Japanese children to determine temporal changes, seasonal changes, and gender differences.

Method First-morning urine samples were obtained from 50 Japanese children (4–6-year-old) in October of 2006, 2011, and 2015 (total = 150) to investigate the temporal trends in urinary Gly concentrations. Additionally, first-morning urine samples were collected from 3-year-old children in August–September of 2012 (summer; n = 42) and in February of 2013 (winter; n = 42) to investigate the seasonal and gender differences, and the correlations between urinary Gly concentrations and insecticide exposure biomarkers. Urine samples were analyzed to measure for Gly using a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

Results Detectable Gly concentrations were found in 41% of the 234 children. The 75th percentile and maximum concentrations of urinary Gly were 0.20 and 1.33 μg/L, respectively. The urinary Gly concentration in 2015 was significantly higher than in 2006, suggesting that the Gly exposure levels have been increasing. No seasonal or gender-specific differences in urinary Gly concentrations were observed, and no correlation with insecticide exposure biomarkers was found.

Conclusion This study revealed that Gly exposure trends show an increase between 2006 and 2015, and that season and gender were not the exposure-determining factors. Overall, urinary concentrations of Gly were comparable with studies from other countries.

 


Bakke et al., 2009

Bakke, B., De Roos, A. J., Barr, D. B., Stewart, P. A., Blair, A., Freeman, L. B., Lynch, C. F., Allen, R. H., Alavanja, M. C., & Vermeulen, R.; “Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season;” Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 2009, 19(6), 544-554; DOI: 10.1038/jes.2008.53.

ABSTRACT:

The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 non-farming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November in 2002 and 2003 on pesticide use and other exposure determinants. Urine samples were collected at 10 time points relative to atrazine application and other farming activities. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolites and diaries. The analytical limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/l for all pesticide analytes except for isazaphos (1.5 microg/l) and diazinon (0.7 microg/l). Farmers had higher geometric mean urinary atrazine mercapturate (AZM) values than controls during planting (1.1 vs <LOD microg/g creatinine; P<0.05). AZM levels among farmers were significantly related to the amount of atrazine applied (P=0.015). Interestingly, farmers had a larger proportion of samples above the LOD than controls even after exclusion of observations with an atrazine application within 7 days before urine collection (38% vs 6%, P<0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for 2,4-D and acetochlor (92% vs 47%, P<0.0001 and 45% vs 4%, P<0.0001, respectively). Urinary AZM levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine. Therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. Elevated background levels of non-persistent pesticides, especially 2,4-D, indicate importance in epidemiologic studies of capturing pesticide exposures that might not be directly related to the actual application.

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