Bibliography Tag: pesticide exposure

Costello et al., 2009

Costello S, Cockburn M, Bronstein J, Zhang X, Ritz B; “Parkinson’s disease and residential exposure to maneb and paraquat from agricultural applications in the central valley of California.” American Journal of Epidemiology. 2009 Apr 15;169(8):919-26. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwp006.
Evidence from animal and cell models suggests that pesticides cause a neurodegenerative process leading to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Human data are insufficient to support this claim for any specific pesticide, largely because of challenges in exposure assessment. The authors developed and validated an exposure assessment tool based on geographic information systems that integrated information from California Pesticide Use Reports and land-use maps to estimate historical exposure to agricultural pesticides in the residential environment. In 1998-2007, the authors enrolled 368 incident PD cases and 341 population controls from the Central Valley of California in a case-control study. They generated estimates for maneb and paraquat exposures incurred between 1974 and 1999. Exposure to both pesticides within 500 m of the home increased PD risk by 75% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13, 2.73). Persons aged < or =60 years at the time of diagnosis were at much higher risk when exposed to either maneb or paraquat alone (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 0.91, 5.70) or to both pesticides in combination (odds ratio = 4.17, 95% CI: 1.15, 15.16) in 1974-1989. This study provides evidence that exposure to a combination of maneb and paraquat increases PD risk, particularly in younger subjects and/or when exposure occurs at younger ages. FULL TEXT

Benbrook et al., 2021

Benbrook, Charles, Kegley, Susan, & Baker, Brian; “Organic Farming Lessens Reliance on Pesticides and Promotes Public Health by Lowering Dietary Risks;” Agronomy, 2021, 11(7); DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11071266.


Organic agriculture is a production system that relies on prevention, ecological processes, biodiversity, mechanical processes, and natural cycles to control pests and maintain productivity. Pesticide use is generally limited or absent in organic agroecosystems, in contrast with non-organic (conventional) production systems that primarily rely on pesticides for crop protection. Significant differences in pesticide use between the two production systems markedly alter the relative dietary exposure and risk levels and the environmental impacts of pesticides. Data are presented on pesticide use on organic and non-organic farms for all crops and selected horticultural crops. The relative dietary risks that are posed by organic and non-organic food, with a focus on fresh produce, are also presented and compared. The results support the notion that organic farms apply pesticides far less intensively than conventional farms, in part because, over time on well-managed organic farms, pest pressure falls when compared to the levels on nearby conventional farms growing the same crops. Biopesticides are the predominant pesticides used in organic production, which work by a non-toxic mode of action, and pose minimal risks to human health and the environment. Consequently, eating organic food, especially fruits and vegetables, can largely eliminate the risks posed by pesticide dietary exposure. We recommend ways to lower the pesticide risks by increased adoption of organic farming practices and highlight options along organic food supply chains to further reduce pesticide use, exposures, and adverse worker and environmental impacts. FULL TEXT

Ledda et al., 2021

Ledda C, Cannizzaro E, Cinà D, Filetti V, Vitale E, Paravizzini G, Di Naso C, Iavicoli I, Rapisarda V. “Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers after exposure to pesticides.” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2021 Jan 7;16(1):1. DOI: 10.1186/s12995-020-00290-z.


BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies on workers describe that exposure to pesticides can induce oxidative stress by increased production of free radicals that can accumulate in the cell and damage biological macromolecules, for example, RNA, DNA, DNA repair proteins and other proteins and/or modify antioxidant defense mechanisms, as well as detoxification and scavenger enzymes. This study aimed to assess oxidative stress and DNA damage among workers exposed to pesticides.

METHODS: For this purpose, 52 pesticide exposed workers and 52 organic farmers were enrolled. They were assessed: the pesticide exposure, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione (TG), oxidized glutathione levels (GSSG), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), levels.

RESULTS: Correlation between pesticide exposure was positively associated with high TBARS and 8-oxodG levels (p < 0.001). A negative association was founded with TG and GSSG and pesticide exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation results seem to indicate a mild augment in oxidative stress associated with pesticide exposure, followed by an adaptive response to increase the antioxidant defenses to prevent sustained oxidative adverse effects stress. FULL TEXT

Lee et al., 2017

Lee KM, Park SY, Lee K, Oh SS, Ko SB. “Pesticide metabolite and oxidative stress in male farmers exposed to pesticide.” Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2017 Feb 28;29:5, DOI: 10.1186/s40557-017-0162-3.


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and isoprostane which has been used as an index of lipid injury, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), which has been used as an index of DNA damage, and dialkyl-phosphate (DAP), which has been used to quantify pesticide exposure, and to investigate the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress.

METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 84 male farmers exposure to pesticide. In this study, 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA were measured as oxidative stress indices, and dialkyl-phosphate (dimethylphosphate(DMP), diethylphosphate(DEP), dimethylthiophosphate(DMTP), and diethylthiophosphate (DETP)) excreted in the urine was also measured to evaluate pesticide exposure. A linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between pesticide metabolites, and oxidative stress biomarkers.

RESULTS: A Correlation analysis was performed for pesticide exposure month (PEI), cumulative exposure index (CEI), and DAP as well as the concentration of the oxidative stress biomarkers. The PEM significantly and positively correlated to the levels of 8-OHdG, isoprostane, CEI, and DMP. CEI showed a correlation to 8-OHdG and PEM. DMP, DEP, and DETP showed a positive correlation to 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA. A correlation analysis was adjusted some demographic characteristics, such as age, smoking, drinking, and exercise to determine the relationship between pesticide exposure and oxidative stress. The 8-OHdG, isoprostane, and MDA levels were significantly related to the DMP (ß = 0.320), DEP (ß = 0.390), and DETP (ß = 0.082); DMP (ß = 0.396), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.504); and DMP (ß = 0.432), DEP (ß = 0.508), and DETP (ß = 0.329) levels, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The concentration between oxidative stress biomarkers and the pesticide metabolite were a positive correlation. Indicators of oxidative stress was associated with a pesticide metabolite DMP, DEP, and DETP. Therefore, Pesticide exposure and oxidative stress were relevant. FULL TEXT

Mnif et al., 2011

Mnif W, Hassine AI, Bouaziz A, Bartegi A, Thomas O, Roig B. “Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011 Jun;8(6):2265-303. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062265.

ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. FULL TEXT

Ndonwi et al., 2019

Ndonwi EN, Atogho-Tiedeu B, Lontchi-Yimagou E, Shinkafi TS, Nanfa D, Balti EV, Indusmita R, Mahmood A, Katte JC, Mbanya A, Matsha T, Mbanya JC, Shakir A, Sobngwi E. “Gestational Exposure to Pesticides Induces Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Offspring that Persist at Adult Age in an Animal Model.” Toxicological Research, 2019 Jul;35(3):241-248; DOI: 10.5487/TR.2019.35.3.241.


Pesticide exposure may induce biochemical alterations including oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. However, in the context of developmental origin of health and disease, putative trans-generational effect of exposure to pesticides are insufficiently studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate the biochemical effect of gestational exposure to four pesticides on female Wistar rats and their offspring at adult age. We studied 30 female nulliparous Wistar rats divided into 5 equal groups. Group 1 served as the control group and received distilled water while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received orally pesticide 1 (imidacloprid), pesticide 2 (chlorpyrifos), pesticide 3 (imidacloprid + lambda cyhalothrin) and pesticide 4 (oxamyl) respectively once daily throughout gestation at a dose equivalent to 1/10 lethal dose 50. The mothers were followed up until one month post gestation. The offspring were followed up from birth until adult age (12 weeks). In all animals at each time point we evaluated malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress and liver function enzymes. There was similar variation of total body weight in all the groups during and after gestation. However, Female Wistar rats of the exposed groups had significant alterations in liver SOD (-30.8% to +64.1%), catalase (-38.8% to -85.7%) and GSH (-29.2% to -86.5%) and; kidney catalase (> 100%), GSH (> 100%). Moreover, MDA, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) levels were significantly higher in pesticide exposed rats compared to the control group. Similar alterations in antioxidant enzymes, MDA and liver function enzymes were observed in offspring of treated rats evidenced at weaning and persisting until adult age. Exposure to pesticides causes oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in exposed female Wistar rats and their offspring. The persistence in offspring at adult age suggests transgenerational adverse effects. FULL TEXT